Vilca Taco, L. M.,  Mamani T., E., Luque-Fernández, C. R.,  2021. Seabird temporal composition, abundance and habitat use in 'Punta La Metalera' (Arequipa, Southern Peru).  Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, 19. Doi:

Table 1. Ethogram of bird behavior considered at  Punta La Metalera (Arequipa, Peru).

Tabla 1. Etograma de los  comportamientosconsiderados en las aves de Punta La Metalera (Arequipa, Perú).





Preening (P)

Any activity of care or attention to the animal´s body surface; including  any cleanliness behavior

Hogan-Warburg et al. (1995);  Mooring et al. (2004); Iannacon et al. (2012)

Foraging (F)

The spatial search for food resources and obtaining food

Castelblanco-Martinez (2010);  Sibley (2010)

Resting (R)

The act of perching or alighting, and vigilant sleep that allows them to be alert to any noise so that they can escape from any threat.

Quiñonez and Hernandez (2017)

Copulation (C)

Couples mating or attempting to mate, where the male mounts the female from behind.


Nesting (N)

The action of nest building, mainly with birds carrying materials.


Mating (M)

Courtship ceremonies, in which the bird spreads its feathers by adopting different positions (enhancing its body parts), offering food or other gifts to the females. In addition to these rituals, the male may interact with the environment to show physical or individual characteristics through dancing, singing, or fighting.

Idárraga (2015)

Agonistic behavior (AB)

Aggressive behavior associated with fighting, including the attack, threat, escape, and submission.

Camerino and Nos (1983)

Non-agonistic behavior (NAB)

Allopreening and crossing beaks. Allopreening refers to grooming or preening another bird. Crossing beaks indicates that the bird peaks another bird's beak.

Camerino and Nos (1983)