GBIF: Data paper

New contributions to the Eulophidae fauna from Morocco (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) with comparison in the North African region

Kissayi, K. Benhalima, S.  Benhoussa, A., 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2019.17.0161

Key words

Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae, Additions, Morocco

Reception date: 17/04/2019  |   Acceptation date: 03/09/2019  |   Publication date: 17/09/2019

© Copyright belongs to the authors, who license the journal Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica to publish the paper under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, which permits its distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source, the journal Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, are cited.
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New contributions to the Eulophidae fauna from Morocco (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) with comparison in the North African region

Kissayi, K. Benhalima, S.  Benhoussa, A., 

Abstract

New contributions to the Eulophidae fauna from Morocco (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) with comparison in the North African region
We present an update of the Moroccan Eulophidae following samples collected in the Maâmora forest between 2012 and 2014, and completed with a thorough bibliographic study. We report seven genera for the first time in Morocco: Allocerastichus Masi, 1924; Euderomphale Girault, 1916; Eulophus Geoffroy, 1762; Euplectrus Westwood, 1832; Microlycus Thomson, 1878; Tamarixia Masi, 1924 and Trjapitzinichus Kostjukov & Kosheleva, 2006 and six species: Baryscapus impeditus (Nees, 1864); Ceranisus menes (Walker, 1839); Elachertus lateralis (Spinola, 1808); Elasmus atratus Howard, 1897; Microlycus biroi (Erdös, 1951) and Trjapitzinichus politus (Graham, 1991). A possible new species (Baryscapus n. sp.) and two unidentified species (Allocerastichus sp. and Euderomphale sp.) are included in the list of Moroccan Eulophidae.

Data published through GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/wpyzuh)

Keys word: Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae, Additions, Morocco

Resumen

Nuevas aportaciones a la fauna de Eulophidae de Marruecos (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) y comparación con la de la región del norte de África
En este artículo se presenta una actualización de los Eulophidae de Marruecos tras un estudio de las muestras recolectadas en el bosque de Maâmora entre 2012 y 2014, completándose con una minuciosa revisión bibliográfica. Se han registrado por primera vez en Marruecos siete géneros. Allocerastichus Masi, 1924; Euderomphale Girault, 1916; Eulophus Geoffroy, 1762; Euplectrus Westwood, 1832; Microlycus Thomson, 1878; Tamarixia Masi, 1924 y Trjapitzinichus Kostjukov & Kosheleva, 2006 y seis especies, Baryscapus impeditus (Nees, 1864); Ceranisus menes (Walker, 1839); Elachertus lateralis (Spinola, 1808); Elasmus atratus Howard, 1897; Microlycus biroi (Erdös, 1951) y Trjapitzinichus politus (Graham, 1991). Se han incluido en la lista de Eulophidae de Marruecos una posible nueva especie (Baryscapus n. sp.) y dos especies no identificadas (Allocerastichus sp. and Euderomphale sp.).

Datos publicados en GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/wpyzuh)

Palabras clave: Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae, Adiciones, Marruecos

Resum

Noves aportacions a la fauna d’Eulophidae del Marroc (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) i comparació amb la de la regió del nord d’Àfrica
En aquest article es presenta una actualització dels Eulophidae del Marroc després d’un estudi de les mostres recol·lectades al bosc de Maâmora entre 2012 i 2014 i es completa amb una minuciosa revisió bibliogràfica. S’han registrat per primera vegada al Marroc set gèneres: Allocerastichus Masi, 1924; Euderomphale Girault, 1916; Eulophus Geoffroy, 1762; Euplectrus Westwood, 1832; Microlycus Thomson, 1878; Tamarixia Masi, 1924 i Trjapitzinichus Kostjukov i Kosheleva, 2006 i sis espècies, Baryscapus impeditus (Nees, 1864); Ceranisus menes (Walker, 1839); Elachertus lateralis (Spinola, 1808); Elasmus atratus Howard, 1897; Microlycus biroi (Erdös, 1951) i Trjapitzinichus politus (Graham, 1991). S’han inclòs a la llista d’Eulophidae del Marroc una possible nova espècie (Baryscapus n. sp.) i dues espècies no identificades (Allocerastichus sp. i Euderomphale sp.).

Dades publicades a GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/wpyzuh)

Paraules clau: Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae, Addicions, Marroc

Introduction

The family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) currently comprises 6,038 species belonging to five subfamilies (Noyes, 2019). Several phylogenetic studies have been carried out on this family (Gauthier et al., 2000; Burks et al., 2011; Munro et al., 2011; Heraty et al., 2013). Members of the Eulophidae family are recognized as parasitoids of many insects belonging to Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera (Noyes, 2019). They parasitize older larvae or nymphs of holometabolous insects and paralyze them or kill them by multiple bites of the laying female that feeds on the host’s juices (Blanchot 1992). Thus, a large number of species in this group have been used in biological control against various crop pests (Cochereau, 1969; Lecoustre et al., 1980; Clair et al., 1987; Etienne and Dumbardon–Martial, 2013; Yefremova et al., 2015).

In their notes on agricultural and forestry entomology in Morocco, De Lépiney and Mimeur (1932) mentioned many parasitoids, including five eulophids [Dibrachys cavus (Walker, 1835), Dicladocerus westwoodii Westwood, 1832, Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833), Pachyneuron vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875), Tetrastichus epilachnae (Girad, 1895)]. Another species, Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838), was later cited by Jourdan and Rungs (1934). Two years after this, Rungs (1936) reported Tetrastichus inunctus (Nees, 1834) and Smirnoff (1950, 1956) cited Aprostocetus minutus (Howard, 1881). A few years later, Delucchi (1962) published a first monograph of the Eulophidae fauna in Morocco, composed of 12 species. At the end the 1990s, other researchers reported the presence of several further species such as Semielacher petiolatus (Girault, 1988) and Citrostichus phyllocnistoides (Narayanan, 1960) used in biological control in agricultural (Nia et al., 1997; Abbassi et al., 1999; Rizqi et al., 2003; Pintureau et al., 2003; Delvare et al., 2011; Smaili et al., 2013). Meantime, in the forest domain, Eulophidae species have been described by El Alaoui El Fels et al. (1999), Maatouf and Lumaret (2012) and Kissayi and Benhalima (2018). In summary, according to a recent study by Noyes ( 2019), 36 species of Eulophidae are known from Morocco, but 14 previously described species were not included in their study (2019). Therefore, we consider that before our study, a total of 50 species were known from Morocco. The aim of this study was to provide an updated annotated checklist of the Moroccan Eulophidae with new data, general distribution, and host preferences.

Material and methods

Study area

Samples were collected at three stations in the Maâmora forest (fig. 1): Taïcha (Station 1), 34º 13′ 29,5” N, 6º 39′ 04,8” W, 36 m; Aïn Johra (Station 2), 34º 06′ 34,2” N, 6º 19′ 04,0” W, 175 m; Aïn Assou Kceïbia (Station 3), 34º 12′ 07,9” N, 6º 15′ 10,8” W, 84 m. This work has been completed through a bibliographic research.

Fig. 1. Study sites and location of sampling traps in Maâmora forest. Fig. 1. Emplazamientos de estudio y localización de las trampas de muestreo en el bosque de Maâmora.

 

Collection method

The samples were collected once a week using Malaise traps during the following periods: from May 26th to October 8th in 2012, from May 24th to September 23rd in 2013, and from November 27th to June 14th in 2013. After sorting, the specimens were preserved in alcohol at 70º for identification.

Terminology used

Identifications are based on Narendran (2011); Triapitsyn and Headrick (1995); Protasov et al. (2007a, 2007b); Bouček (1959, 1977, 1988); Erdös (1954); Harris (1979); Delucchi and Remaudière (1966); Bouček and Askew (1968a); Graham (1987, 1991); Doğanlar et al. 2011; LaSalle (1994). The work of the determinations of this family was preceded by a thorough bibliographical study.

Abbreviations

CIRAD, Center for International Agricultural Cooperation for Development, Montpellier, France.
INAV, National Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II, Rabat, Morocco.
CKK, Khadija Kissayi Collection.
* genus or species new to Moroccan fauna identified during this study.

Results

Morocco currently has 56 species of Eulophidae, of which 36 had previously been reported from Morocco (Noyes, 2019). The biodiversity of this family has increased by seven genera, six species, one new species (Baryscapus n. sp.) and two unidentified species (Allocerastichus sp. and Euderomphale sp.) following the new faunal surveys in Maâmora complemented by our investigations of Moroccan and international documentary research. Of these, several publications contained faunal data that have not been recorded previously to date or are absent from any catalog.

Commented list of newly named Eulophidae species in Morocco

Below we report the list of Eulophidae species present in Morocco (see dataset published in GBIF, doi: 10.15470/wpyzuh), with updated names, geographical distribution (when the locality is not available one notes ‘Morocco’), references, hosts and distributions on the global scale according to Noyes (2019).

Order Hymenoptera L., 1758
Superfamily Chalcidoidea Latreille, 1817

Family Eulophidae Westwood, 1829
Sufamily Entedoninae Förster, 1856

*Ceranisus Walker, 1842
*Ceranisus menes (Walker, 1839)
Material studied: Maậmora Forest, canton D, Aïn Johra commune, Al Maha 34º 06′ 34,2” N, 6º 19′ 04,0” W, 75 m, 1♀, 30 V 2013, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK).
Insects hosts: Thysanoptera, Thripidae (Noyes, 2019).
General distribution: Afrotropical, Indomalaya, Neotropical, Palaearctic (Bulgaria, Canary Islands, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland (north and south), Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Korea, South, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USSR and Morocco).

Chrysocharis Förster, 1856
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838)
(= C. aeneiscapus (Thomson, 1878) = C. syma Walker, 1839)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco by Jourdan and Rungs (1934, p. 210) in Rabat, 10 III 1932; Fedala, 23 II 1932, Kozlowsky leg.; these records are not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Diptera, Agromyzidae, Cecidomyiidae, Drosophilidae, Tephritidae; Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Lyonetiidae, Nepticulidae, Tischeriidae, Tortricidae (Thompson, 1955; Hansson, 1985). In Morocco the species was obtained on pupae of Phytomyza atricornis Meigen, 1838 (Diptera, Agromyzidae) living on peas (Jourdan and Rungs, 1934).
General distribution: Holarctic, Australia, New Zealand, India and Yemen.

Closterocerus Westwood, 1832
Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault, 1922)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco by Kissayi and Benhalima (2018, p. 296): this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Material studied: Maâmora Forest, canton D, Aïn Johra commune, Al Maha 34º 06′ 34,2” N, 6º 19′ 04,0” W, 175 m, 1♀, 03 VII 2012; Kceïbia commune, Aïn Assou 34º 12′ 07,9” N, 6º 15′ 10,8” W, 84 m, 1♂, 25 II 2014; canton A, Sidi Taïbi commune, Taïcha 34º 13′ 29,5” N, 6º 39′ 04,8” W, 36 m, 1♀, 14 V 2014, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK) (Kissayi and Benhalima, 2018, p. 296).
Insects hosts: Hymenoptera, Eulophidae [Ophelimus eucalypti (Ashmead) and O. maskelli (Ashmead)], gall wasps of Eucalyptus spp. (Protasov et al., 2007a). In Morocco, this species was obtained as a parasitoid of Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae) infesting Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) (Kissayi and Benhalima, 2018).
General distribution: Australia and introduced in the Mediterranean Basin.

*Euderomphale Girault, 1916
*Euderomphale sp.
Material examined: Maâmora forest, canton D, commune Kceïbia, Aïn Assou 34º 12′ 07,9” N, 6º 15′ 10,8” W, 84 m, 1♀, 02 VII 2013, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK).

Horismenus Walker, 1843
Horismenus hipparchia (Cameron, 1913)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco by Crunze–Fisher (2017) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Lepidoptera, Limacodidae [Phobetron hipparchia (Cramer)] (De Santis, 1979; Hansson, 2009).
General distribution: Guyana and introduced in Morocco.

Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov, 1912
Neochrysocharis formosus (Westwood, 1833)
(= Closterocerus formosus Westwood, 1833)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Rabat (De Lépiney and Mimeur, 1932, p. 60, 109) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae; Diptera, Agromyzidae, Cecidomyiidae, Drosophilidae, Tephritidae; Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae, Aphididae; Hymenoptera, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, Pamphiliidae, Tenthredinidae; Lepidoptera, Bucculatricidae, Coleophoridae, Elachistidae, Gelechiidae, Gracillariidae, Heliozelidae, Lasiocampidae, Lyonetiidae, Momphidae, Nepticulidae, Pyralidae, Yponomeutidae (Noyes 2019). In Morocco the species was obtained on Agromyza sp. mining the leaves of Chrysanthemum L. (De Lépiney and Mimeur, 1932).
General distribution: Afrotropical, Indomalaya, Nearctic, Neotropical and Palaearctic.

*Subfamily Entiinae Hedqvist, 1974

*Allocerastichus Masi, 1924
*Allocerastichus sp.
Distribution in Morocco: Fir forest Talassemtane National Park (Benyahia, 2016, p., 167).
Remarks: the specimen collected has affinities with the species Allocerastichus doderi Masi, 1924.

Subfamily Eulophinae Westwood, 1829

Cirrospilus Westwood, 1832
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Belksiri, Sidi Slimane (Smaili et al., 2013, p. 158) but not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Coleoptera, Curculionidae; Diptera, Agromyzidae, Cecidomyiidae; Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae, Asterolecaniidae; Hymenoptera, Argidae, Braconidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, Tenthredinidae; Lepidoptera, Bucculatricidae, Coleophoridae, Elachistidae, Eriocraniidae, Gelechiidae, Gracillariidae, Heliozelidae, Lyonetiidae, Momphidae, Nepticulidae, Tischeriidae, Yponomeutidae (Noyes, 2019). In Morocco, this species has been observed on Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) living on citrus fruits (Smaili et al., 2013).
General distribution: Palaearctic and Nearctic.

Dicladocerus Westwood, 1832
Dicladocerus westwoodii Westwood, 1832
(= Solenotus viridis Förster, 1856)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Rabat (De Lépiney and Mimeur, 1932, p. 60, 108) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Diptera, Agromyzidae, Ephydridae; Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Gelechiidae, Scythrididae, Tortricidae, Yponomeutidae (Herting, 1978). In Morocco, this species was obtained on Agromyza pusilla Meigen, 1830 living on Alfalfa (De Lépiney and Mimeur, 1932). According to Smirnoff (1950), this species is recognized as a hyperparasitoid of the encyrtid  Homalotylus flaminius (Dalman, 1820).
General distribution: Western Palaearctic, Neotropical, Nearctic and India.

Elachertus Spinola, 1811
Elachertus artaeus (Walker, 1839)

Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Ras Al Ma, Azrou, Aïn Kahla (Mouna, 2013, p. 9) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Gracillariidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Tortricidae (Herting, 1975; Trjapitzin, 1978; Bouček and Askew, 1968; Tomov, 2002). In Morocco, this species was obtained as a parasitoid on the third stage of the caterpillars of Acleris undulana (Walsingham, 1900) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) (Mouna, 2013).
General distribution: Palaearctic and Australia.

*Elachertus lateralis (Spinola, 1808)
Material studied: Maâmora forest, canton A, Sidi Taïbi commune, Taïcha, 34º 13′ 29,5” N, 6º 39′ 04,8” W, 36 m, 1♀, 08 V 2014; canton D, Aïn Johra commune, Al Maha, 34º 06′ 34,2” N, 6º 19′ 04,0” W, 175 m, 1♂, 02 IV 2014; 1♀, 03 VII 2012, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK).
Insects hosts: Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae [Coleophora sp.]; Noctuidae [Mamestra brassicae (L., 1758)]; Tortricidae [Olethreutes variegana Hübner, 1799] (Noyes, 2019).
General distribution: Nearctic, Yemen and Palaearctic (Austria, Bulgaria, Canary Islands, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Korea, South, Madeira, Moldova, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USSR and Morocco).

Elasmus Westwood, 1833
Elasmus atratus Howard, 1897
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Talassemtane National Park, Fir forest, 1 specimen, 19 VII 2013, colored trap, Y. Benyahia leg. (Benyahia, 2016, p. 172) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Lepidoptera, Arctiidae, Tortricidae, Lymantriidae, Pterophoridae, Pyralidae (Peck, 1963; Herting, 1975; Thompson, 1955).
General distribution: Canada, United States of America and Morocco*.

*Microlycus Thomson, 1878
*Microlycus biroi Erdös, 1951
Material studied: Maâmora forest, canton D, Kceïbia commune, Aïn Assou; 34º 12′ 07,9” N, 6º 15′ 10,8” W, 84 m, 1♂, 19 IX 2012, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK).
Hosts: not indicated.
General distribution: Western Palaearctic: Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Czechoslovakia and Morocco.

Necremnus Thomson, 1878
Necremus artynes (Walker, 1839)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Souss Massa region (Delvare et al., 2011, p. 1) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Lepidoptera, Momphidae (Bouček 1977).
General distribution: Western Palaearctic and USA.

Necremnus leucarthros Nees, 1836
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Aïn Kahla, Azrou, Ras El Ma (Mouna, 2013, p. 9) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Coleoptera, Anthribidae, Apionidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Staphylinidae; Diptera: Agromyzidae, Cecidomyiidae, Chloropidae; Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Eriocraniidae, Tortricidae, Yponomeutidae (Bouček, 1959; Bouček and Askew, 1968; Herting, 1975; Trjapitzin, 1978). In Morocco, the species is recognized as a parasitoid of the chrysalis of Dichelia numidicola Chambon (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) (Mouna, 2013).
General distribution: Palaearctic, India, United States of America.

Subfamily Opheliminae Westwood

Ophelimus Haliday, 1844
Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead, 1900)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Rabat, Mohammedia, Oued Cherrat, Temara, Skhirate, Bouznika, Benslimane, Casablancan, Settat, El Jadida, Kenitra, Sidi Kacem, Sidi Slimane, Khemisset, Meknes, Larache and Khouribga (Kissayi and Benhalima 2018, p. 294) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Material studied: Maậmora forest, Kceïbia commune, Aïn Assou, 34º 12′ 07,9” N, 6º 15′ 10,8” W, 84 m, 3♀, 31 VII 2012, K. Kissayi leg. (CCK).
Insects hosts: Hemiptera, Psyllidae [Ctenarytaina eucalypti (Maskell)] (Thompson, 1955).
Hosts plants: Eucalyptus spp. (Protasov et al., 2007b; Mendel et al., 2007; Mifsud, 2012). In Morocco, this species has caused serious damage to Eucalyptus camadulensis (Myrtaceae) (Kissayi and Benhalima, 2018).
General distribution: Australia, New Zealand, United States of America, Indonesia, Vietnam, United Kingdom, South Africa, Mediterranean Basin (introduced).

Subfamily Tetrastichinae Förster, 1856

Baryscapus Förster, 1856
*Baryscapus impeditus (Nees, 1864)
Material studied: Maâmora Forest, canton D, Aïn Johra commune, Al Maha, 34º 06′ 34,2” N, 6º 19′ 04,0” W, 175 m, 1♀, 26 IX 2012, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK).
Insects hosts: Hemiptera, Aphididae [Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov], Coccidae [Pulvinaria sp.]; Neuroptera, Chrysopidae [Chrysopa sp., C. flavifrons (Brauer), Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)] (Domenichini, 1966; Bouček, 1977; Graham, 1991).
General distribution: Indomalaya (India, Pakistan) and Palaearctic (Andorra, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Italy, Moldova, Netherlands, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Turkey and Morocco).

Baryscapus nigroviolaceus (Nees, 1834)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from Aïn Kahla, Azrou, Ras El Ma (Mouna, 2013, p. 9) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Coleoptera, Curculionidae; Diptera, Cecidomyiidae; Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Heliozelidae, Lasiocampidae, Lyonetiidae, Tineidae, Tortricidae, Yponomeutidae (Bouček, 1961; Domenichini, 1966; Herting, 1975; Graham, 1991; Del Bene and Landi; 1993; Hellrigrl and Ambrosi, 2000; Baur, 2005; Yefremova et al., 2007; Özbek and Coruh, 2010). In Morocco, this species has been reported as a parasitoid of caterpillars of Acleris undulana (Walsingham, 1900) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) (Mouna, 2013).
General distribution: Palaearctic.

Baryscapus phytomyzae Kostyukov, 1978
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from region of Fez and Meknes (Klein, 1995, abstract only; Klein and Korschel, 2002, p. 263) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Diptera, Agromyzidae [Phytomyza orobannchia (Kaltenbach)] (Graham, 1991). In Morocco, this species was obtained from the same Diptera living on Orobanche crenata Forsskal, 1775; O. aegyptiaca Persoon, 1807 and O. foetida (Poiret, 1789) (Orobonchaceae) (Klein and Korschel, 2002).
General distribution: Armenia, Egypt, Moldova, Uzbekistan, Russia and Morocco.

*Baryscapus sp.
Material studied: Maậmora Forest, canton A, Sidi Taïbi commune, Taïcha, 34º 13′ 29.5” N, 6º 39′ 04.8” W, 36 m, 1♀, 09 IX 2013, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK).
Remark: this specimen proved to be a new species for science (Gérard Delvare, pers. comm.). It will benefit from a detailed description and will be published soon.

Pronotalia Gradwell, 1957
Pronotalia orobanchiae Graham, 1991
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned in Morocco from the region of Fez and Meknes (Klein, 1995, abstract only; Klein and Korschel, 2002, p. 263) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Diptera, Agromyzidae [Phytomyza orobannchia (Kaltenbach)] (Graham, 1991). In Morocco, this species was obtained from the same Diptera living on Orobanche crenata Forsskal, 1775; O. aegyptiaca Persoon, 1806 and O. foetida (Poiret, 1789) (Orobonchaceae) (Klein and Korschel, 2002).
General distribution: Western Papaearctic (Bulgaria, Iran, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia and Morocco).

Tetrastichus Haliday, 1844
Tetrastichus inunctus (Nees, 1834)
Distribution in Morocco: species previously mentioned from Fez (Rungs, 1936, p. 19) but this record is not included in Noyes (2019).
Insects hosts: Diptera, Cecidomyiidae [Paradiplosis abietis (Agevab) (= Agevillea abietis Hubault), Rabdophaga heterobia (Loew), Resseliella theobaldi (Barnes) (= Thomasiniana theobaldi Barnes)] (Thompson, 1955). In Morocco, this species is recognized as parasitoids of Mayetiola destructor (Mayede) pupae (= Mayetiola mimeuri Mesnil) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) living on wheat (Rungs, 1936).
General distribution: Western Palaearctic (Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, United Kingdom and Morocco).

*Trjapitzinichus Kostjukov and Kosheleva, 2006
*Trjapitzinichus politus (Graham, 1991)
Material studied: Maậmora forest, canton D, Kceïbia commune, Aïn Assou, 34º 12′ 07.9” N, 6º 15′ 10.8” W, 84 m, 1♀, 08 IV 2014, K. Kissayi leg. (CKK).
Hosts: Not indicated.
General distribution: Bulgaria, Italy, Montenegro, Yugoslavia and Morocco.

Discussion

This work has enriched the family of Eulophidae in Morocco by adding one new species (scientific description underway), two unidentified species, seven genera, and 20 species, 14 of which have not been listed previously and six are newly identified in addition to the 36 species previously cataloged. Thus, the new number of Eulophidae species in the Kingdom is currently 59. This is a relatively low number and represents only about 1% of this family worldwide according to the catalog of Noyes (2019). Moreover, the majority of genera and species identified in this study belong to the subfamily Eulophinae (14 genera / 27 species), followed by Tetrastichinae (10 genera/19 species), Entedoninae (8 genera/11 species) and finally Opheliminae and Entiinae (recently identified) (1 genus/1 species).

Concerning the Great Maghreb, the Eulophidae currently has 52 genera and 132 binomial species. In addition, some genera have been newly found in Morocco and will be published soon. All these species are included in the annex 1. Moreover, the figures reveal that the entomofauna of the southern shore of the Mediterranean is generally little represented compared to Eulophidae of countries on the north shore, which have many more, such as in France (411 species), Italy (355 species), Spain (232 species), Croatia (165 species), Greece (101 species) and Montenegro (99 species), according to Noyes (2019). This suggests that the entomofauna of the North African region is still poorly known.

Annex 1. Checklist of Eulophidae species in Morocco and the neighboring countries of the North African region: Mo, Morocco; Alg, Algeria; Tun, Tunisia; Mau, Mauritania; Lyb, Lybia; Egy, Egypt; + present. Anexo 1. Lista de especies de Eulophidae en Marruecos y en los países vecinos de la región del norte de África: Mo, Marruecos; Alg, Argelia; Tun, Túnez; Mau, Mauritania; Lyb, Libia; Egy, Egipto; + presente.

The comparison of Moroccan Eulophids with those of the Maghreb countries reveals that Morocco has a relatively rich diversity of this family (59 species is 33 %), almost equitable to Egypt (55 species or 32 %). Egyptian wildlife has been enriched with 15 species thanks to the work of Gadallah et al. (2015). Paradoxically, in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania, the number of species mentioned is respectively 33 (19 %), 16 (9 %) [knowing that Leptocybe invasa is not catalogued (Dhahri et al., 2010)], 9 (5 %) and 3 (2 %) species. It is likely that these figures do not reflect reality because no studies or revisions are currently available in these countries.

The comparative study of Eulophids based on available bibliographic data on fauna of North African indicates a clear difference in faunistic composition. Most of the species have a restricted distribution in North Africa; few are found in more than three or four countries. In fact, of the 132 species mentioned from the total group of Maghreb countries only two species (Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini) and Necremnus tutae Ribes and Bernardo) are common to four of the six countries in the region.

In addition, Mauritania has the lowest biodiversity of this family, with only three species belonging to three genera: Meruacesa Koçak and Kemal, Trichospilus Ferrière and Tamarixia Mercet. This last genus has recently been identified in Morocco (Benyahia, 2016).

Four genera, Allocerastichus Masi, Ceranisus Walker, Microlycus Thomson, and Trjapitzinichus Kostjukov and Kosheleva are mentioned for the first time in North Africa (Morocco), each represented by a single species.

On the other hand, Aprostocetus Westwood is the most diversified genus of this family, not only in the Maghreb (11 species) in general but also in Morocco (5 species). It is a widespread Mediterranean genus, being known on European shores in Spain and France (Askew et al., 2013), Italy (Conti et al., 2000), Greece (Graham, 1987), Montenegro (Bouček, 1977), and Cyprus (Thompson, 1955), and on Asian shores in Turkey (Fry, 1989), Lebanon (Domenichini, 1966) Syria, and Israel (Japoshvili et al., 2015). It is also known on the African east shore in Algeria (Kostjukov, 1989), in the west in Tunisia (Lo Verde et al., 2010) and east in Egypt (Doğanlar and Elsayed, 2013). This genus is also reported in Eastern Europe in Slovenia (Graham, 1987) and Croatia (Bouček, 1977). Some rather diverse genera in the Maghreb, such as Cirrospilus Westwood and Baryscapus Förster (8 species), Chrysocharis Förster and Entedon Dalman (6 species), occupy a region that goes from Morocco to Egypt, passing through at least two of the following countries: Algeria, Tunisia, and/or Libya. These genera have shown the ability to adapt and settle in these diversified places along a horizontal trajectory. They were also widely represented in several European Mediterranean countries as far as Turkey, Israel and Syria for the genus Baryscapus.

Other genera, such as Diglyphus Walker, Elasmus Westwood and Tetrastichus Haliday (four species), are better represented in the countries of the northern shore of the Mediterranean (France, Spain, Italy, Croatia, Turkey and Israel) and less diversified in the southern shore Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov (two species) and Sigmophora Rondani (one species) are reported in the west of Morocco and Egypt in the east while they are absent from Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. This gap in space cannot be explained for the moment, but it probably due to a lack of research and only partial knowledge of this entomofauna in these Maghreb countries. The genus Neochrysocharis is most highly represented in Spain, Italy, Croatia, Greece, Montenegro and Turkey, unlike Sigmophora that is represented in the Mediterranean countries only by two species, S. brevicornis (Panzer) and S. italica (Domenichini) (fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Geographical distribution of most of the genera compared in countries of the Mediterranean Sea. Fig. 2. Distribución geográfica comparativa de la mayor parte de géneros en países mediterráneos.

 

Being located in the West–Palaearctic region, Morocco is known for its rich and diverse ecosystems and habitats, and should in principle therefore shelter a greater number of species. Knowledge of the Moroccan heritage should be improved by carrying out research programmes on this Hymenoptera group in several regions of Morocco in order to discover and enrich our knowledge of this fauna. The same applies to all the countries of the Great Maghreb which should be part of this research logic since they are among the biodiversity hotspots.

Acknowledgements

Our sincere thanks and acknowledgments go to Dr. Gérard Delvare (CIRAD, France) for contribution and support in identifying specimens. Our thanks also go to the reporters for agreeing to review this work.

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