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GBIF Dataset

Checklist of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of the birds of Peru

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2021.19.0007

Key words

Avifauna, Ectoparasites, Lice, Parasitology, Phthiraptera

Reception date: 02/11/20  |   Acceptation date: 21/01/21  |   Publication date: 15/02/21

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Checklist of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of the birds of Peru

Abstract

Checklist of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) on birds of Peru

Peru is one of the countries with the highest diversity of birds worldwide, having about 1,876 species in its territory. However, studies focused on chewing lice (Phthiraptera) have been carried out on only a minority of bird species. The available data are distributed in 87 publications in the national and international literature. In this checklist we summarize all the records to date of chewing lice on wild and domestic birds in Peru. Among the 301 species of birds studied, 266 species of chewing lice were recorded. The localities with the highest records were the Departments of Cusco, Junín, Lima and Madre de Dios. No records of birds parasitized by these lice have been found in seven departments of Peru. Studies related to lice have only been reported in 16 % of bird species in the country, indicating that research concerning chewing lice has not yet been performed for the the majority of birds in Peru.

Dataset published through GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/u1jtiu)

Key words: Avifauna, Ectoparasites, Lice, Parasitology, Phthiraptera

Resumen

Lista de verificación de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Amblycera e Ischnocera) de las aves de Perú

Perú es uno de los países con mayor diversidad de aves del mundo, con unas 1.876 especies en su territorio. Sin embargo, los estudios dedicados a piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera) de aves se limitan a un número reducido de especies. Esta información se encuentra distribuida en 87 publicaciones nacionales e internacionales. Esta lista de verificación incluye todos los registros de piojos masticadores realizados en aves silvestres y domésticas de Perú. La lista consta de 301 especies de aves en las que se registraron 266 especies de piojos masticadores. Las zonas con mayores registros fueron los departamentos de Cuzco, Junín, Lima y Madre de Dios. No se encontraron registros de aves parasitadas por piojos en siete departamentos de Perú. Tan solo el 16 % de las especies de aves de Perú cuentan con algún estudio referido a piojos, por lo que una importante proporción de aves parasitadas por los mismos permanece indocumentada.

Datos  publicados en GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/u1jtiu)

Palabras claves: Avifauna, Ectoparásitos, Piojos, Parasitología, Phthiraptera

Resum

Llista de verificació de polls mastegadors (Phthiraptera: Amblycera e Ischnocera) dels ocells del Perú

El Perú és un dels països amb més diversitat d’ocells del món, amb unes 1.876 espècies al seu territori. Tanmateix, els estudis dedicats a polls mastegadors (Phthiraptera) d’ocells es limiten a un nombre reduït d’espècies. Aquesta informació es troba distribuïda en 87 publicacions nacionals i internacionals. Aquesta llista de verificació inclou tots els registres de polls mastegadors portats a terme en ocells silvestres i domèstics del Perú. La llista consta de 301 espècies d’ocells en les quals es van registrar 266 espècies de polls mastegadors. Les zones amb més registres van ser els departaments de Cusco, Junín, Lima i Madre de Dios. No es van trobar registres d’ocells parasitats per polls en set departaments del Perú. Només el 16 % de les espècies d’ocells del Perú tenen algun estudi referit a polls, per la qual cosa una proporció important d’ocells parasitats per polls està indocumentada.

Dades publicades a GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/u1jtiu)

Paraules claus: Avifauna, Ectoparàsits, Polls, Parasitologia, Phthiraptera

Introduction

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) are obligate ectoparasites that can be found worldwide on avian hosts, feeding mainly on feathers, blood, dead skin, or secretions (Price et al., 2003; Clayton et al., 2008; Durden, 2019). Birds are most commonly parasitized by two of the four suborders of the Phthiraptera group: Amblycera and Ischnocera (Clayton et al., 2010; Nunes et al., 2014). Most species of bird lice are highly host-specific as many species have been recorded on a single host, while other species have been recorded on other closely related birds (Tavera et al., 2019).

In Peru, approximately 1,876 species of birds have been recorded through sightings, capture, or song identification (Plenge, 2020). This high diversity situates Peru as the country with the second highest diversity of birds in the world, surpassed only by Colombia (Plenge et al., 2020). However, the number of bird species with records of lice species is low.

The study of bird lice in Peru began with the renowned world pioneer and specialist in Neotropical Mallophaga, Melbourne Carriker Jr. one of the first researchers to describe lice species in Peruvian birds. Carriker’s long trajectory in the study of malophaga began in 1902 but it was not until 1936 that he published a registry of mallophaga, including 26 species of lice collected from nine species of birds of the order Tinamiformes (tinamúes, partridges) from the departments of Amazonas, Cajamarca, Junín, La Libertad, Lima, Puno and San Martín. From 1936 to 1967, Carriker continued to publish more records of mallophagous birds from the neotropics, including those from Peru. Among these multiple publications, 26 mention at least one species collected in Peru, making a total of 78 species of mallophaga reported in Peru during this period, and establishing a broad base for this country.

Gonzales et al. (1949) are considered among the first Peruvians researchers to study ectoparasites (including lice) in domestic birds such as chickens. From 1949 to 1968, 13 malignant species were recorded in seven species of birds, three domestic and four wild species, in the Peruvian literature (Dale, 1970).

Most of the records and reports of lice in birds in Peru were published in national and international media between 1936 and 2020. As these data are scattered over various databases (virtual and physical), the objective of this study was to summarize this literature and present it as an annotation list, specifying the hosts and the localities where the hosts were captured.

Material and methods

This revised list was prepared from an extensive bibliographic review of reported lice records on birds from Peru from 1936 to 2020 in the main international databases, as well as physical documents from collections and museums. This list does not include the records of abstracts at scientific meetings, congresses or symposia. The nomenclature of lice follows that of Price et al. (2003) and Smith et al. (2020).

The revised list is made up of two sections: the first contains a list of the lice species, their synonyms, hosts, the locality where the birds were collected, the corresponding reference, and in some cases a comment; the second includes the list of host birds, their common name, their conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and their respective lice. This section is arranged in alphabetical order according to the orders and families of the birds (see also appendix 1 and the dataset published through GBIF, Doi: 10.15470/u1jtiu). The host nomenclature follows that of Schulenberg et al. (2010) and Plenge (2020). Additionally, a map of Peru with its respective departments is presented to indicate the distribution of the species and hosts registered in each department.

Appendix 1. Summary of the birds of Peru parasitized by species of chewing lice: IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Natur (status: CR, critically endangered; EN, endangered; LC, least–concern; NT, near threatened; VU, vulnerable). Apéndice 1. Lista de las aves de Perú parasitadas por especies de piojos masticadores: UICN, Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (estatus: CR, en peligro crítico; EN, en peligro; LC, preocupación menor; NT, casi amenazada; VU, vulnerable).

Results

Checklist Parasite – Host

Class Insecta
Order Phthiraptera Haeckel, 1896
Suborder Amblycera Kellogg, 1896
Family Menoponidae Mjöberg, 1910

Actornithophilus Ferris, 1916

Actornithophilus hoplopteri (Mjöberg, 1910)
Synonym: Actornithophilus hoplopteri maculosus Carriker, 1963; Actornithophilus hoplopteri peruvianus Carriker, 1963
Host: Charadrius vociferus Linnaeus, 1758.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Carriker (1963).

Actornithophilus ochraceus (Nitzsch, 1818)
Synonym: Actornithophilus flavipes (Giebel, 1874); Actornithophilus laveni Eichler, 1953; Actornithophilus perplanus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899); Actornithophilus perrarus Blagov, 1948; Actornithophilus timidus (Kellogg, 1896)
Host: Charadrius alexandrinus Linnaeus, 1758.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).
Remark: Dale (1970) registered this louse in Charadrius alexandrinus, but this bird is not found in Peru, making the identification of this host doubtful.

Actornithophilus pediculoides (Mjöberg, 1910b)
Host: Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758).
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019).

Actornithophilus umbrinus (Burmeister, 1838)
Synonym: Actornithophilus albus Emerson, 1948; Actornithophilus hirsutus Carriker, 1954; Actornithophilus hrabei Balát, 1953; Actornithophilus morsitans (Kellogg and Mann, 1912); Actornithophilus spinulosus minor (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899); Actornithophilus trilobatus (Giebel, 1874); Actornithophilus umbrosus (Harrison, 1916).
Host: Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764); Calidris canutus (Linnaeus, 1758); Calidris mauri (Cabanis, 1857); Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766)
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019).

Actornithophilus sp.
Host: Calidris alba; Tringa flavipes (Gmelin, 1789).
Distribution in Peru: Ica, Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Amyrsidea Ewing, 1927

Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) aburris Carriker, 1950
Synonym: Amyrsidea semicracis chamaepeta Carriker, 1950.
Host: Chamaepetes goudotii (Lesson, 1828).
Distribution in Peru: San Martin.
Reference: Carriker (1950b).

Amyrsidea (Cracimenopon) jacquacu Carriker, 1950
Synonym: Amyrsidea semicracis jacquacu Carriker, 1950.
Host: Penelope jacquacu Spix, 1825.
Distribution in Peru: San Martin.
Reference: Carriker (1950b).

Amyrsidea (Desumenopon) speciosa (Carriker, 1967)
Synonym: Desumenopon speciosa Carriker, 1967.
Host: Odontophorus speciosus Tschudi, 1843.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Carriker and Emerson (1967c).

Austromenopon Bedford, 1939
Austromenopon becki (Kellogg, 1906)
Synonym: Austromenopon miloni (Séguy, 1949).
Host: Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus, 1758.
Distribution in Peru: Piura.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Austromenopon oceanodromae Price and Clay, 1972
Host: Hydrobates hornbyi (G. R. Gray, 1864); Hydrobates Tethys  (Bonaparte, 1852).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price and Clay (1972).

Austromenopon transversum (Denny, 1842)
Synonym: Austromenopon infrequens (Kellogg, 1896); Austromenopon lemniscatum (Enderlein, 1909); Austromenopon obtusum (Giebel, 1866); Austromenopon pachypus (Piaget, 1888); Austromenopon phaeopus (Nitzsch [In Giebel], 1866); Austromenopon ridibundus (Denny, 1842); Austromenopon transversum circular Zlotorzycka, 1968; Austromenopon transversum comitor Zlotorzycka, 1968.
Host: Larus belcheri Vigors, 1829.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Principe et al. (2020).

Ciconiphilus Bedford, 1939

Ciconiphilus decimfasciatus (Boisduval and Lacordaire, 1835)
Synonym: Ciconiphilus agami Carriker, 1964; Ciconiphilus boisduvali (Eichler, 1937); Ciconiphilus castaneus (Piaget, 1885); Ciconiphilus doriabagla (Ansari, 1951); Ciconiphilus floridus Carriker, 1964; Ciconiphilus importunus (Denny, 1842); Ciconiphilus laticeps (Kellogg, 1896); Ciconiphilus nyctardis (Denny, 1842); Ciconiphilus obscurus (Giebel, 1874); Ciconiphilus pilherodii Carriker, 1964; Ciconiphilus sulcatus (Piaget, 1880); Ciconiphilus tamamurensis (Uchida, 1926); Ciconiphilus veratrus (Kellogg, 1910).
Host: Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758); Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758).
Distribution in Peru: Junín, Pasco.
Reference: Carriker, 1964; Dourojeanni et al. (1968).

Colpocephalum Nitzsch, 1818

Colpocephalum heterosoma (Piaget, 1880)
Synonym: Colpocephalum heterosoma boliviana Carriker, 1956; Colpocephalum poopoensis Carriker, 1956.
Host: Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Colpocephalum holzenthali Clayton and Price, 1989
Synonym: Colpocephalum violanii Tendeiro and Mendes, 1994.
Host: Micrastur ruficollis (Vieillot, 1817); Nycticorax nycticorax; Plegadis ridgwayi (Allen, 1876).
Distribution in Peru: Junín, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Dale (1970); Clayton and Price (1989).

Colpocephalum megalopteri Price, 1967
Host: Phalcoboenus sp. Probably Phalcoboenus megalopterus.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Price (1967)
Remark: this species was discovered and described in Phalcoboenus albogularis Gould, 1837, but this host is only found in Southern Chile, so the host is probably P. megalopterus which is the only Phalcoboenus registered in Peru.

Colpocephalum occidentalis Price, 1967
Host: Pelecanus thagus Molina, 1782.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Colpocephalum pectinatum Osborn, 1902
Synonym: Colpocephalum ictiniae Carriker, 1963; Colpocephalum pectinatum neotropicalis (Carriker, 1963).
Host: Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782); Colaptes rupicola d’Orbigny, 1840.
Distribution in Peru: Junín, Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Colpocephalum trichosum Harrison, 1916
Synonym: Colpocephalum setosum Piaget, 1880.
Host: Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price and Beer (1963).

Colpocephalum turbinatum Denny, 1842
Synonym: Colpocephalum abruptofasciatum Mjöberg, 1910; Colpocephalum ailurum Nitzsch, 1861; Colpocephalum bicinctum Nitzsch, 1861; Colpocephalum caudatum Giebel, 1874; Colpocephalum dissimile Piaget, 1880; Colpocephalum eugenii (Eichler and Zlotorzycka, 1963); Colpocephalum femellus (Eichler and Zlotorzycka, 1963); Colpocephalum gypae (Qadri, 1935); Colpocephalum intermedium Piaget, 1880; Colpocephalum latifasciatum Piaget, 1885; Colpocephalum osborni costaricense Carriker, 1903; Colpocephalum oxyurum Nitzsch, 1861; Colpocephalum subflavescens Piaget, 1880; Colpocephalum tricinctum Nitzsch, 1861; Colpocephalum wernecki Orfila, 1959
Host: Columba livia Gmelin, 1789; Nothoprocta pentlandii (Gray, 1867).
Distribution in Peru: Huánuco, Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970); Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015); Príncipe et al. (2020).

Colpocephalum sp.
Host: Geranoaetus polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Dennyus Neumann, 1906

Dennyus (Dennyus) brunneitorques Carriker, 1954
Host: Streptoprocne rutila (Vieillot, 1817).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1954).

Eidmanniella Kéler, 1938

Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget, 1880)
Synonym: Eidmanniella singularis (Kellogg and Kuwana, 1902); Eidmanniella sula Tendeiro, 1958.
Host: Sula nebouxii Milne-Edwards, 1882; Sula variegata (Tschudi, 1843).
Distribution in Peru: Ica, Piura.
Reference: Ryan and Price (1969); Dale (1970).

Eidmanniella pellucida (Rudow, 1869)
Synonym: Eidmanniella brevipalpis (Piaget, 1880); Eidmanniella kuwani (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902); Eidmanniella sigmoidalis (Picaglia, 1885).
Host: Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum (Lesson, 1837); Poikilocarbo gaimardi (Lesson and Garnot, 1828).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970)

Heteromenopon Carriker, 1954b

Heteromenopon (Heteromenopon) aurifrons Price and Beer, 1967
Host: Amazona mercenaries (Tschudi, 1844); Psilopsiagon aurifrons (Lesson, 1830); Psittacara wagleri (G. R. Gray, 1845).
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Price and Beer (1967)
Remark: Price and Beer describe two additional hosts, Piculus rivolii (Boissonneau, 1840) and Cinclus leucocephalus Tschudi, 1844, which they themselves consider as possible host errors.

Hohorstiella Eichler, 1940

Hohorstiella andina Carriker, 1949
Host: Metriopelia Aymara (Prévost, 1840).
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1949b).

Hohorstiella lata (Piaget, 1880)
Host: Columba livia.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Príncipe et al. (2020).

Holomenopon Eichler, 1941

Holomenopon tadornae (Gervais, 1844)

Synonym: Holomenopon boetticheri Eichler, 1955; Holomenopon eulasium (Kellogg, 1910); Holomenopon extraneum (Piaget, 1880); Holomenopon museigottingense Eichler, 1954.
Host: Chloephaga melanoptera (Eyton, 1838).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Kaysius Price and Clayton, 1989

Kaysius cotingae (Carriker, 1949)
Synonym: Machaerilaemus cotingae Carriker, 1949.
Host: Cephalopterus ornatus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809.
Distribution in Peru: San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1949b); Price and Dalgleish (2002).

Kaysius emersoni Price and Clayton, 1989
Host: Glyphorynchus spirurus (Vieillot, 1819).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1989).

Kurodaia Uchida, 1926

Kurodaia sp.
Host: Parabuteo unicinctus (Temminck, 1824); Bubo virginianus (Gmelin, 1788).
Distribution in Peru: Ica, Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970); Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Machaerilaemus Harrison, 1915

Machaerilaemus laticorpus (Carriker, 1903)
Synonym: Machaerilaemus icterus Emerson, 1954; Machaerilaemus insignis Carriker, 1944; Machaerilaemus latifrons Harrison, 1915; Machaerilaemus picturatus Carriker, 1956; Machaerilaemus poecilotis Carriker, 1944.
Host: Ochthoeca rufipectoralis (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Pogonotriccus poecilotis (Sclater, 1862); Ramphocelus carbo (Pallas, 1764); Sporophila angolensis (Linnaeus, 1766).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1944c); Price et al. (2002).

Machaerilaemus maestus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899)
Synonym: Machaerilaemus atrocephalus Carriker, 1944; Machaerilaemus bolivianus Carriker, 1944; Machaerilaemus juninensis Carriker, 1944; Machaerilaemus melospizae Emerson, 1954; Machaerilaemus niethammeri Eichler, 1956; Machaerilaemus robertsi Carriker, 1944; Machaerilaemus submaestus Emerson, 1947; Machaerilaemus tachuris Carriker, 1944.
Host: Asthenes modesta (Eyton, 1851); Agriornis montanus (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Muscisaxicola alpinus (Jardine, 1849); Pogonotriccus poecilotis; Polioxolmis rufipennis (Taczanowski, 1874).
Distribution in Peru: Amazonas, Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1944); Price et al. (2002).

Machaerilaemus sp.
Host: Thamnophilus caerulescens Vieillot, 1816.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Menacanthus Neumann, 1912

Menacanthus distinctus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899)
Host: Myiarchus ferox (Gmelin, 1789).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price (1977).

Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838)
Synonym: Menacanthus annulatus (Giebel, 1874); Menacanthus biaculeatus (Picaglia, 1885); Menacanthus biseriatus (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus brelihi Balát, 1981; Menacanthus chabaroviensis Fedorenko, 1978; Menacanthus cornicis Blagov., 1948; Menacanthus dicruri Eichler, 1947; Menacanthus difficilis (Carriker, 1903); Menacanthus dubius (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus festivus Eichler and Zlotorzycka, 1963; Menacanthus flavus (Rudow, 1866); Menacanthus fuscocinctus (Denny, 1842); Menacanthus germanus (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus gracilis (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus grandis Fedorenko and Lunkaschu, 1987; Menacanthus gulabimaina Ansari, 1951; Menacanthus himalayicus Ansari, 1951; Menacanthus inscitus Zlotorzycka, 1965; Menacanthus kevei Sasvári-Schäfer, 1966; Menacanthus meniscus (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus microsceli Uchida, 1926; Menacanthus minusculus Blagov., 1940; Menacanthus monochromateus (Kellogg and Paine, 1914); Menacanthus mutabilis Blagov., 1940; Menacanthus parviceps (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus parvulus (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus persignatus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899); Menacanthus pflegeri Eichler, 1953; Menacanthus pica (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus pius Eichler and Zlotorzycka, 1963; Menacanthus polonicus Eichler and Zlotorzycka, 1963; Menacanthus pyrrhulae (Panzer, 1798); Menacanthus remizae Blagov., 1940; Menacanthus safedgal Ansari, 1951; Menacanthus schildmacheri Eichler, 1953; Menacanthus sittae (Giebel, 1866); Menacanthus spiniferus (Piaget, 1885); Menacanthus spinosus (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus subspinosus Uchida, 1926; Menacanthus tibialis (Piaget, 1885); Menacanthus tichodromae Rékási, 1995; Menacanthus translucidus (Piaget, 1885); Menacanthus tristisi Qadri, 1935; Menacanthus turkmenicus Fedorenko and Kekilova, 1978; Menacanthus volkovi Fedorenko, 1978; Menacanthus wipszyckii Eichler and Zlotorzycka, 1963.
Host: Grallaria ruficapilla Lafresnaye, 1842.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price (1975).

Menacanthus exsanguis (Paine and Mann, 1913)
Synonym: Menacanthus exsanguis malherbi Carriker, 1967.
Host: Campephilus melanoleucos (Gmelin, 1788).
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca.
Reference: Carriker and Emerson (1967a).

Menacanthus pici (Denny, 1842)
Synonym: Menacanthus benii Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus bruneri Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus caquetae Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus ceophloeus ceophloeus Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus colaptis (Durrant, 1908); Menacanthus dryobates (Eichler, 1953); Menacanthus hoffmanni Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus koreae Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus picorum (Eichler, 1953); Menacanthus pitius Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus praecursor (Kellogg, 1899); Menacanthus punensis Carriker, 1967; Menacanthus quercus Carriker, 1967.
Host: Colaptes rupicola.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco, Lima.
Reference: Carriker and Emerson (1967a); Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015).

Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch, 1818)
Synonym: Menacanthus biseriatus (Piaget, 1880); Menacanthus meleagridis (Panzer, 1798); Menacanthus zumpti (Eichler, 1944)
Host: Columba livia; Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758); Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Arnao (1951); Gonzalez et al. (1949); Naupay et al. (2015).

Menacanthus sp.
Host: Myioborus miniatus (Swainson, 1827); Myiothlypis signata Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1906; Turdus serranus Tschudi, 1844.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Menopon gallinae (Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonym: Menopon brevipes Piaget, 1885; Menopon longicephalum Kellogg, 1896; Menopon lunanale Eichler, 1947; Menopon pallidum (Nitzsch, 1818); Menopon productum Piaget, 1880; Menopon subaequale productum Piaget, 1885; Menopon trigonocephalus (Olfers, 1816).
Host: Columba livia; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Arnao (1951); Castro et al. (2017); Vásquez et al. (1965).

Myrsidea Waterston, 1915

Myrsidea barbati Price, Hellenthal and Dalgleish, 2005
Host: Myiobius barbatus (Gmelin, 1789).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price et al. (2005).

Myrsidea blattae Dalgleish and Price, 2005
Host: Schiffornis turdine (Wied, 1831).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Dalgleish and Price (2005).

Myrsidea dacostai Price, Johnson and Dalgleish, 2008
Host: Thamnophilus doliatus (Linnaeus, 1764).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price et al. (2008b).

Myrsidea daleclaytoni Valim and Cicchino, 2015
Host: Cyanocorax violaceus Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Valim and Cicchino (2015).

Myrsidea dalgleishi Valim, Price and Johnson, 2011
Host: Glyphorynchus spirurus (Vieillot, 1819).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Valim et al. (2011).

Myrsidea devastator Ansari, 1956
Host: Turdus serranus.
Distribution in Peru: Amazonas, Piura.
Reference: Ansari (1956); Clay (1966).

Myrsidea downsi Clay, 1968
Host: Psarocolius decumanus (Pallas, 1769).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clay (1968).

Myrsidea dorotheae Eichler, 1953
Host: Pteroglossus azara (Vieillot, 1819); Pteroglossus inscriptus Swainson, 1822.
Distribution in Peru: Loreto, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price et al. (2004).

Myrsidea edgarsmithi Dalgleish and Price, 2003
Host: Lepidothrix coronate Spix, 1825; Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766); Pipra filicauda Spix, 1825.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Dalgleish and Price (2003).

Myrsidea extranea (Carriker, 1903)
Host: Ramphastos tucanus Linnaeus, 1758; Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson, 1823.
Distribution in Peru: Huánuco, Loreto.
Reference: Price et al. (2004).

Myrsidea fallax Kéler, 1938
Host: Cyanocorax cyanomelas (Vieillot, 1818).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Valim and Cicchino (2015).

Myrsidea fasciata Sychra and Kounek, 2014
Host: Campylorhynchus fasciatus (Swainson, 1837).
Distribution in Peru: Huánuco.
Reference: Sychra et al. (2014).

Myrsidea flaviventris Price, Hellenthal and Dalgleish, 2005
Host: Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied, 1831).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price et al. (2005).

Myrsidea indigenella Ansari, 1956
Host: Turdus maranonicus Taczanowski, 1880.
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca.
Reference: Ansari (1956); Clay (1966).

Myrsidea laciniata Clay, 1968
Host: Cacicus uropygialis Lafresnaye, 1843.
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca.
Reference: Clay (1968).

Myrsidea markhafneri Price, Johnson and Dalgleish 2008
Host: Saltator grossus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price et al. (2008a).

Myrsidea ochrolaemi Sychra, 2007
Host: Automolus ochrolaemus (Tschudi, 1844).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Valim et al. (2011).

Myrsidea oleaginei Price, Hellenthal and Dalgleish, 2005
Host: Mionectes oleaginous (Lichtenstein, 1823).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto, San Martín.
Reference: Price et al. (2005); Kolencik et al. (2018).

Myrsidea peruviana Eichler 1951
Host: Ramphastos tucanus.
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price et al. (2004).

Myrsidea pitangi Price, Hellenthal and Dalgleish, 2005
Host: Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766).
Distribution in Peru: San Martín.
Reference: Kolencik et al. (2018).

Myrsidea ramphoceli Price and Dalgleish, 2006
Host: Ramphocelus carbo (Pallas, 1764).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price and Dalgleish (2006).

Myrsidea seminuda Eichler, 1951
Host: Tangara episcopus (Linnaeus, 1766).
Distribution in Peru: Huánuco.
Reference: Kolencik et al. (2017).

Myrsidea simplex Ansari, 1956
Host: Catharus fuscater (Lafresnaye, 1845).
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Ansari (1956); Clay (1966).

Myrsidea strobilisternataEichler, 1956
Host: Lochmias nematura (Lichtenstein, 1823).
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Valim et al. (2011).

Myrsidea tropicalis Clay, 1968
Host: Psarocolius angustifrons (von Spix, 1824).
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca.
Reference: Clay (1968).

Myrsidea varia Ansari, 1956
Host: Turdus ignobilis Sclater, 1857.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Ansari (1956), Clay (1966).

Myrsidea sp.
Host: Arremon taciturnus (Hermann, 1783); Automolus ochrolaemus (Tschudi, 1844); Automolus subulatus (Spix, 1824); Buthraupis montana (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall, 1840); Chamaeza campanisona (Lichtenstein, 1823); Chiroxiphia boliviana Allen, 1889; Chlorochrysa calliparaea (Tschudi, 1844); Chlorornis riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840); Chlorospingus flavigularis (Sclater, 1852); Chlorospingus flavopectus (Lafresnaye, 1840); Chlorospingus parvirostris Chapman, 1901; Cinclodes nigrofumosus (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1838); Clibanornis rubiginosus (Sclater, 1857); Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758); Diglossa brunneiventris Lafresnaye, 1846; Diglossa cyanea (Lafresnaye, 1840); Diglossa glauca Sclater and Salvin, 1876; Diglossa mystacalis Lafresnaye, 1846; Dysithamnus mentalis (Temminck, 1823); Entomodestes leucotis (Tschudi, 1844); Eubucco versicolor (Müller, 1776); Euphonia xanthogaster Sundevall, 1834; Glyphorynchus spirurus (Vieillot, 1819); Grallaricula flavirostris (Sclater, 1858); Henicorhina leucophrys (Tschudi, 1844); Iridosornis analis (Tschudi, 1844); Iridosornis jelskii (Cabanis, 1873); Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla Tschudi, 1844; Leptopogon amaurocephalus Tschudi, 1846; Leptopogon superciliaris Tschudi, 1844; Mimus longicaudatus Tschudi, 1844; Mionectes oleaginous; Mionectes olivaceus Lawrence, 1868; Mionectes striaticollis (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Myadestes ralloides (d’Orbigny, 1840); Myioborus miniatus (Swainson, 1827); Myiothlypis bivittat (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Myiothlypis coronata (Tschudi, 1844); Myiothlypis luteoviridis (Bonaparte, 1845); Myiothlypis signata Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1906; Myiotriccus ornatus (Lafresnaye, 1853); Phlegopsis nigromaculata (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus (Taczanowski, 1874); Phylloscartes poecilotis (Sclater, 1862); Pipra fasciicauda Hellmayr, 1906; Pipreola intermedia Taczanowski, 1884; Pipreola pulchra (Hellmayr, 1917); Piranga leucoptera Trudeau, 1839; Premnoplex brunnescens (Sclater, 1856); Ramphocelus carbo; Rhegmatorhina melanosticta (Sclater and Salvin, 1880);Silvicultrix frontalis (Lafresnaye, 1847); Silvicultrix pulchella (Sclater and Salvin, 1876); Sphenopsis melanotis (Sclater, 1855); Spinus magellanicus (Vieillot, 1805); Sporathraupis cyanocephala (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Sporophila nigricollis (Vieillot, 1823); Syndactyla ucayalae (Chapman, 1928); Tangara arthus Lesson, 1832; Tangara chilensis (Vigors, 1832); Tangara cyanicollis (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Tangara gyrola (Linnaeus, 1758); Tangara punctata (Linnaeus, 1766); Tangara schrankii (Spix, 1825); Thripadectes holostictus (Sclater and Salvin, 1876); Thripadectes melanorhynchus (Tschudi, 1844); Trichothraupis melanops (Vieillot, 1818); Turdus fuscater Lafresnaye and d’Orbigny, 1837; Turdus leucops (Taczanowski, 1877); Turdus serranus.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco, Huánuco, Lima, San Martín.
Reference: Dale (1970); Kolencik et al. (2017); Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Osborniella Thompson, 1948

Osborniella sulcirostriae Wiseman, 1963
Host: Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson, 1827.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Piagetiella Neumann, 1906

Piagetiella chilensis (Grosse, 1885)
Host: Pelecanus thagus.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Piagetiella transitans (Ewing, 1930)
Synonym: Piagetiella titschacki (Eichler, 1941).
Host: Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Piagetiella sp.
Host: Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum; Pelecanus thagus; Poikilocarbo gaimardi.
Distribution in Peru: Ancash, Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970); Vásquez and Chávez (1960).

Plegadiphilus Bedford, 1939

Plegadiphilus sp.
Host: Plegadis ridgwayi.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Pseudomenopon Mjöberg, 1910

Pseudomenopon dolium (Rudow, 1869)
Synonym: Pseudomenopon insolens frescai Eichler, 1952; Pseudomenopon janiszewskae Lucinska, 1969; Pseudomenopon stuchlyi Lucinska, 1969; Pseudomenopon tridens insolens (Kellogg, 1896); Pseudomenopon tridens par (Kellogg, 1896).
Host: Podiceps taczanowskii Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Price (1974).

Pseudomenopon pilosum (Scopoli, 1763)
Synonym: Pseudomenopon brazi Tendeiro, 1965; Pseudomenopon delicatulum (Piaget, 1880); Pseudomenopon jacintoi Tendeiro, 1965; Pseudomenopon scitum (Piaget, 1880); Pseudomenopon thompsoni Eichler, 1937; Pseudomenopon tridens (Burmeister, 1838); Pseudomenopon zlotorzyckae Lucinska, 1969.
Host: Fulica americana Gmelin, 1789; Fulica ardesiaca Tschudi, 1843; Fulica gigantea Eydoux and Souleyet, 1841.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).
Remark: Dale (1970) records Pseudomenopon pilosum in F. americana. At present this bird has no distribution in Peru; probably it was still present in Peru in 1970. It is also mentioned in Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758), but this is probably a mistake and actually refers to Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein, 1818) because G. chloropus is distributed in the paleotropics and G. galeata in the neotropics.

Psittacobrosus Carriker, 1954

Psittacobrosus amazonicus Carriker, 1963
Host: Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766), Pionus menstruus (Linnaeus, 1766).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Price and Beer (1968); Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Psittacobrosus brotogerisi Price and Beer, 1968
Host: Forpus coelestis (Lesson, 1847).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price and Beer (1968).

Psittacobrosus burmeisteri (Kellogg, 1906)
Host: Ara macao (Linnaeus, 1758).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Psittacobrosus forpi Carriker, 1954
Synonym: Psittacobrosus burhinoides (Carriker, 1963).
Host: Forpus coelestis.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price and Beer (1968).

Ramphasticolla Carriker 1949

Ramphasticolla hirsuta Carriker J., 1949
Host: Ramphastos cuvieri Wagler, 1827.
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Hellenthal et al. (2005).

Ramphasticolla moylei Hellenthal, Price and Weckstein, 2005
Host: Ramphastos cuvieri Wagler, 1827.
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Hellenthal et al. (2005).

Trinoton Nitzsch, 1818

Trinoton sp.
Host: Anas bahamensis Linnaeus, 1758.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Family Ricinidae Neumann, 1890

Ricinus De Geer, 1778

Ricinus frenatus (Burmeister, 1838)
Host: Lathrotriccus griseipectus (Lawrence, 1870); Philydor erythrocercum (Pelzeln, 1859).
Distribution in Peru: Huánuco.
Reference: Príncipe et al. (2020).

Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956
Host: Euphonia laniirostris d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Valan et al. (2016).

Ricinus sp.
Host: Anabacerthia striaticollis Lafresnaye, 1840; Atlapetes melanolaemus (Sclater and Salvin, 1879); Chiroxiphia boliviana; Conirostrum albifrons Lafresnaye, 1842; Diglossa glauca; Euphonia mesochrysa Salvadori, 1873; Thlypopsis superciliaris (Lafresnaye, 1840); Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla; Machaeropterus pyrocephalus (Sclater, 1852); Myioborus miniatus; Myiophobus inornatus Carriker, 1932; Myiothlypis bivittate (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Myiothlypis luteoviridis (Bonaparte, 1845); Myiothlypis signata Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1906; Rhegmatorhina melanosticta; Sciaphylax hemimelaena (Sclater, 1857); Sphenopsis melanotis; Thlypopsis ruficeps (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Turdus serranus.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Trochiliphagus Carriker, 1960

Trochiliphagus peruanus Carriker, 1960
Host: Adelomyia melanogenys (Fraser, 1840).
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca.
Reference: Carriker (1960).

Trochiliphagus sp.
Host: Amazilia amazilia (Lesson, 1827); Thalurania furcate (Gmelin, 1788).
Distribution in Peru: Cusco, Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970); Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Trochiloecetes Paine and Mann, 1913

Trochiloecetes complexus Carriker, 1960
Host: Glaucis hirsute (Gmelin, 1788).
Distribution in Peru: San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1960).

Trochiloecetes fasciatus Carriker, 1960
Host: Lesbia nuna (Lesson, 1832).
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca.
Reference: Carriker (1960).

Trochiloecetes illumani Carriker, 1960
Host: Threnetes leucurus (Linnaeus, 1766).
Distribution in Peru: Huánuco.
Reference: Príncipe et al. (2020).

Trochiloecetes mandibularis Carriker, 1960
Host: Threnetes leucurus.
Distribution in Peru: San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1960).

Trochiloecetes rhodopis Carriker, 1960
Host: Rhodopis vesper (Lesson, 1829).
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Carriker (1960).

Trochiloecetes simplex Carriker, 1960
Host: Amazilia amazilia.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Carriker (1960).

Trochiloecetes sp.
Host: Coeligena violifer (Gould, 1846).
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Suborder Ischnocera Kellogg, 1896
Family Philopteridae Burmeister, 1838

Acutifrons Guimarães, 1942

Acutifrons megalopterus Carriker, 1956
Host: Phalcoboenus albogularis.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Carriker (1956).

Alcedoffula Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1939

Alcedoffula theresae  Tendeiro, 1967.
Host: Megaceryle torquate (Linnaeus, 1766).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015).

Anaticola Clay, 1936

Anaticola phoenicopteri (Coinde, 1859)
Synonym: Anaticola subsignatus (Giebel, 1866); Anaticola trapezoideus (Rudow, 1869).
Host: Phoenicopterus chilensis.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Anaticola sp.
Host: Anas flavirostris Vieillot, 1816; Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789; Spatula versicolor (Vieillot, 1816); Chloephaga melanoptera; Oxyura ferrugine (Eyton, 1838).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Ardeicola Clay, 1936

Ardeicola expallidus Blagov., 1940
Synonym: Ardeicola albulus Eichler, 1948; Ardeicola gaibagla Ansari, 1947.
Host: Bubulcus ibis.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970); Dourojeanni et al. (1968).

Ardeicola goisagi Uchida, 1954
Host: Nycticorax nycticorax.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Ardeicola ovisignatus Eichler, 1953
Host: Plegadis ridgwayi.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Austrophilopterus Ewing, 1929

Austrophilopterus andigenae Carriker, 1950
Host: Andigena hypoglauca (Gould, 1833).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1950a).

Austrophilopterus cancellosus (Carriker, 1903)
Host: Pteroglossus azara; Pteroglossus castanotis Gould, 1834; Ramphastos ambiguus; Ramphastos cuvieri.
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1950a); Price and Weckstein (2005).

Austrophilopterus flavirostris Carriker, 1950
Host: Pteroglossus azara; Pteroglossus castanotis.
Distribution in Peru: Amazonas, Loreto.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2005).

Austrophilopterus truncatus (Piaget, 1888)
Synonym: Austrophilopterus spinosus subspinosus Carriker, 1950.
Host: Aulacorhynchus atrogularis (Strum, 1841); Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis d’Orbigny, 1840; Aulacorhynchus derbianus Gould, 1835; Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Gould, 1834).
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca, Cusco, Junín, Madre de Dios, Pasco, San Martín, Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1950a); Price and Weckstein (2005).

Bizarrifrons Eichler, 1938

Bizarrifrons latifrons Valim and Palma, 2012
Host: Psarocolius angustifrons.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Valim and Palma (2012).

Bizarrifrons magus Valim and Palma 2012
Host: Psarocolius decumanus.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Valim and Palma (2012).

Bizarrifrons quasisymmetricus Valim and Palma 2012
Host: Cacicus solitarius Vieillot, 1816.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Valim and Palma (2012).

Brueelia Kéler, 1936

Brueelia brunneinucha Cicchino, 1983
Synonym: Brueelia polyglottal Williams, 1983.
Host: Mimus longicaudatus.
Distribution in Peru: Tumbes.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015).

Brueelia cicchinoi Valim and Weckstein 2011
Host: Trogon collaris Vieillot, 1817.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Valim and Weckstein (2011).

Brueelia sp.
Host: Baryphthengus martii (Spix, 1824); Catharus ustulatus; Entomodestes leucotis; Iridosornis analis; Myadestes ralloides; Saltator maximus (Müller, 1776); Tangara cyanicollis; Turdus serranus.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Campanulotes Kéler, 1939

Campanulotes bidentatus (Scopoli, 1763)
Host: Columba livia.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Arnao (1951).

Campanulotes compar (Burmeister, 1838)
Synonym: Campanulotes formosanus (Sugimoto, 1929).
Host: Columba livia.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970); Príncipe et al. (2020).

Carduiceps Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1939

Carduiceps zonarius (Nitzsch 1866)
Synonym: Carduiceps complexivus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899).
Host: Calidris alba.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Carduiceps sp.
Host: Calidris alba.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Chelopistes Kéler, 19390

Chelopistes jacquacu (Carriker, 1967)
Synonym: Trichodomedea jacquacu Carriker, 1967.
Host: Penelope jacquacu.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Carriker and Emerson (1967b).

Chelopistes latafrons (Carriker, 1945)
Synonym: Chelopistes latafrons crassus Carriker, 1945; Chelopistes latafrons grandis Carriker, 1945; Chelopistes latafrons intermedius Carriker, 1945; Chelopistes latafrons mira Carriker (Carriker, 1967); Chelopistes latafrons subsimilis Carriker (Carriker, 1945); Trichodomedea latafrons Carriker, 1945.
Host: Ortalis guttata (Spix, 1825).
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1945b).

Chelopistes meleagridis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonym: Chelopistes stylifer (Nitzsch, 1818); Chelopistes styliferum (Taschenberg, 1882).
Host: Meleagris gallopavo.
Distribution in Peru: Tumbes.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015).

Chelopistes peruviana (Carriker, 1967)
Synonym: Trichodomedea peruviana Carriker, 1967.
Host: Odontophorus speciosus.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Carriker and Emerson (1967b).

Columbicola Ewing, 1929

Columbicola adamsi Clayton and Price, 1999
Host: Patagioenas plumbea Vieillot, 1818.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1999).

Columbicola altamimiae Clayton and Price, 1999
Host: Metriopelia aymara.
Distribution in Peru: Arequipa, Junín.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1999).

Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus, 1758)
Host: Columba livia; Gallus gallus.
Distribution in Peru: La Libertad, Lima.
Reference: Gonzales et al. (1949); Vásquez et al. (1965); Castro et al. (2017); Príncipe et al. (2020).

Columbicola extinctus Malcomson, 1937
Host: Patagioenas fasciata Say, 1823.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1999).

Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, 1955
Host: Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1999).

Columbicola gymnopeliae Eichler, 1953
Host: Metriopelia ceciliae (Lesson, 1845).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1999).

Columbicola macrourae (Wilson, 1941)
Synonym: Columbicola pseudolipeurusque Eichler, 1952.
Host: Patagioenas subvinacea (Lawrence, 1868) Geotrygon montana (Linnaeus, 1758).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1999).

Columbicola sp.
Host: Geotrygon montana.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Cotingacola Carriker, 1956

Cotingacola fitzpatricki Clayton and Price (1998)
Host: Snowornis subalaris Sclater, 1861.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1998).

Cotingacola parmipapillae Carriker, 1956
Host: Cephalopterus ornatus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Valim and Weckstein (2012).

Cotingacola rupicolae Carriker, 1956
Synonym: Cotingacola latigastra Carriker, 1956; Cotingacola longicrucis Carriker, 1956; Cotingacola rupicolae colombiana Carriker, 1956; Cotingacola temporalis Carriker, 1956.
Host: Rupicola peruvianus (Latham, 1790).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1998).

Cotingacola stotzi  Clayton and Price (1998)
Host: Querula purpurata (Müller, 1776).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Clayton and Price (1998).

Cuclotocephalus Carriker, 1936

Cuclotocephalus extraneus Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Cuclotocephalus extraneus ornatus Carriker, 1944.
Host: Nothoprocta ornata (Gray, 1867).
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Cuclotocephalus secundus Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Cuclotocephalus secundus incachacae Carriker, 1944.
Host: Nothoprocta pentlandi.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Degeeriella Neumann, 1906

Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874)
Synonym: Degeeriella angusta (Giebel, 1874); Degeeriella borealis Carriker, 1956; Degeeriella flavida (Giebel, 1874); Degeeriella fusca (Nitzsch, 1861); Degeeriella genitalis Carriker, 1956; Degeeriella giebeli Hopkins, 1947.
Host: Geranoaetus polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Formicaphagus Carriker, 1957

Formicaphagus arnoldi Price and Clayton, 1997
Host: Conopophaga ardesiaca d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1996).

Formicaphagus clypeatus Carriker, 1957
Host: Myrmelastes leucostigma (Pelzeln, 1868).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1996).

Formicaphagus donpetersi Price and Clayton (1997)
Host: Conopophaga ardesiaca.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1996).

Formicaphagus picturatus Carriker, 1957
Synonym: Formicaphagus laemostictus Carriker, 1957; Formicaphagus latifrons Carriker, 1957; Formicaphagus peruvianus Carriker, 1957.
Host: Myrmotherula schisticolor (Lawrence, 1865).
Distribution in Peru: Pasco.
Reference: Carriker (1957).

Formicaphagus pittasomae Carriker 1957
Host: Myrmothera campanisona (Hermann, 1783).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1996).

Formicaphagus thamnophili Cicchino and Valim, 2008
Host: Thamnophilus ruficapillus Vieillot, 1816.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Cicchino and Valim (2008).

Formicaphagus sp.
Host: Dysithamnus mentalis; Myrmoborus myotherinus (Spix, 1825); Pyriglena leuconota (Spix, 1824); Thamnophilus caerulescens.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Formicaricola Carriker, 1957

Formicaricola analoides Carriker, 1957
Synonym: Formicaricola beni Carriker, 1957; Formicaricola chocoana Carriker, 1957; Formicaricola colmae Carriker, 1957; Formicaricola costaricensis Carriker, 1957; Formicaricola mexicana Carriker, 1957; Formicaricola sanctaemartae Carriker, 1957.
Host: Formicarius rufipectus Salvin, 1866.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1995a).

Fulicoffula Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1938

Fulicoffula gallinula Carriker, 1953
Host: Gallinula sp.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1953).
Remark: this louse was recorded by Carriker (1953) as Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus, 1758), but as this bird is only found in the paleotropics, there was probably an identification error, and it is Gallinula galeata (Lichtenstein, 1818).

Fulicoffula heliornis Carriker, 1953
Host: Heliornis fulica (Boddaert, 1783).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1953).

Fulicoffula sp.
Host: Gallinula sp.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).
Remark: this louse was recorded in Gallinula chloropus by Dale (1970), but this bird is only found in the palaeotropics. Therefore, this was probably an error of identification, and it is Gallinula galeata.

Furnariphilus Price and Clayton, 1995

Furnariphilus griffithsi Price and Clayton, 1995
Host: Sclerurus mexicanus Sclater, 1857.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1995b).

Furnariphilus pagei Price and Clayton, 1995
Host: Furnarius leucopus Swainson, 1837.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1995b).

Furnariphilus parkeri Price and Clayton, 1995
Host: Sclerurus caudacutus (Vieillot, 1816).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1995b).

Furnariphilus sp.
Host: Synallaxis azarae d’Orbigny, 1835; Thripadectes holostictus.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Goniocotes Burmeister, 1838

Goniocotes sp.
Host: Columbia livia.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Castro et al. (2017).

Goniodes Nitzsch, 1818

Goniodes gigas (Taschenberg, 1879)
Synonym: Goniodes abdominalis (Piaget, 1880); Goniodes hologaster (Denny, 1842)
Host: Columbia livia, Gallus gallus.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Arnao (1951); Castro et al. (2017).

Halipeurus Thompson, 1936

Halipeurus (Halipeurus) diversus (Kellogg, 1896)
Synonym: Halipeurus constrictiventris (Pessôa and Guimarães, 1935); Halipeurus hanaki Balát, 1958; Halipeurus limitatus (Kellogg, 1896a).
Host: Ardenna grisea (Gmelin, 1789).
Distribution in Peru: Piura.
Reference: Dale (1970) .

Harrisoniella Bedford, 1929

Harrisoniella ferox (Giebel, 1867)
Synonym: Harrisoniella chilensis Carriker, 1964; Harrisoniella irroratae (Kéler, 1957).
Host: Phoebastria irrorata (Salvin, 1883).
Distribution in Peru: Piura.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Heptapsogaster Carriker, 1936

Heptapsogaster mandibularis Carriker, 1936
Host: Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783); Crypturellus undulatus (Temminck, 1815).
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca, Pasco.
Reference: Carriker (1944a).

Heptapsogaster teres (Clay, 1937)
Synonym: Rhynchothura teres Clay, 1937.
Host: Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clay (1937).

Heptapsogaster tesselatus Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Heptapsogaster tesselatus ecuadoranus (Carriker, 1961).
Host: Nothoprocta curvirostris Sclater & Salvin, 1873; Nothoprocta ornate.
Distribution in Peru: La Libertad, Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Heptapsogaster testudo Clay, 1937
Synonym: Heptapsogaster heterurus (Carriker, 1944).
Host: Nothura maculosa.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clay (1937).
Remark: it is likely that N. maculosa was still distributed in Peru in 1937, however, at present only Nothura darwinii Gray, 1867 is found in Peru.

Ibidoecus Cummings, 1916

Ibidoecus plegadii Carriker, 1947
Host: Plegadis ridgwayi.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1947); Dale (1970).

Ibidoecus sp.
Host: Plegadis ridgwayi.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Kelloggia Carriker, 1903

Kelloggia coniceps (Taschenberg, 1882)
Synonym: Austrokelloggia coniceps (Carriker, 1936); Hypocryptus coniceps Carriker, 1936.
Host: Crypturellus soui, Crypturellus obsoletus (Temminck, 1815).
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Kelloggia intermedius (Carriker, 1936)
Synonym: Austrokelloggia intermedia Carriker, 1936.
Host: Nothocercus nigrocapillus (G. R. Gray, 1867).
Distribution in Peru: Amazonas, Junin.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Kelloggia latithorax Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Kelloggia brevipes chocoensis Carriker, 1944; Kelloggia brevipes taoi Carriker, 1944; Kelloggia brevipes venezolensis Carriker, 1958.
Host: Crypturellus obsoletus.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Lamprocorpus Carriker, 1936

Lamprocorpus hirsutus Carriker, 1936
Host: Nothoprocta ornata.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Lamprocorpus spinosus Carriker, 1936
Host: Nothoprocta pentlandii.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Lipeurus Nitzsch, 1818

Lipeurus caponis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonym: Lipeurus antennatus Piaget, 1885; Lipeurus bakeri Carriker, 1956; Lipeurus caponis borcherti Eichler, 1953; Lipeurus dovei McGregor, 1918; Lipeurus lineatus McGregor, 1917; Lipeurus tesselatus (Denny, 1842); Lipeurus variabilis Burmeister, 1838
Host: Columba livia; Gallus gallus.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Arnao (1951); Naupay et al. (2015).

Lipeurus sp.
Host: Meleagris gallopavo.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Vásquez et al. (1965).

Lunaceps Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1939

Lunaceps actophilus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899)
Host: Calidris alba.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019).

Lunaceps incoenis (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899)
Synonym: Lunaceps husainii Ansari, 1955.
Host: Calidris mauri.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019).

Lunaceps rothkoi Gustafsson and Olsson, 2012
Host: Calidris pusilla
Distribution in Peru: Ica
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019)

Lunaceps superciliosus Gustafsson and Olsson, 2012
Host: Calidris pusilla.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019).

Lunaceps sp.
Host: Calidris alba; C. canutus.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970); Tavera et al. (2019).

Mayriphilopterus Mey, 2004
Host: Jacamerops aureus (Müller, 1776).
Distribution in Peru: Pasco.
Reference: Mey (2004).

Mayriphilopterus ernsti Mey, 2004
Host: Glyphorynchus spirurus (Vieillot, 1819); Lathrotriccus griseipectus; Monasa morphoeus (Hahn and Küster, 1823); Philydor erythrocercum; Willisornis poecilinotus (Cabanis, 1847).
Distribution in Peru: Huánuco, Pasco.
Reference: Mey (2004); Príncipe et al. (2020).

Mayriphilopterus galbulicus Mey, 2004
Host: Galbula cyanescen Deville, 1849.
Distribution in Peru: Pasco.
Reference: Mey (2004).

Megaginus Carriker, 1936

Megaginus emarginatus Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Megaginus e. caquetensis Carriker, 1955; Megaginus e. dissimilis Carriker, 1944; Megaginus e. excavatus Carriker, 1944; Megaginus e. lataclypeus Carriker, 1944; Megaginus quadrithorax Carriker, 1936.
Host: Crypturellus soui; Crypturellus obsoletus.
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca, Junín, Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936); Carriker (1944a).

Megapeostus Carriker, 1936

Megapeostus asymmetricus Carriker, 1936
Host: Tinamus major (Gmelin, 1789).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Clay (1937).

Megapeostus platycephalus (Carriker, 1936)
Synonym: Heptapsogaster platycephalus platycephalus Carriker, 1936; Megapeostus platycephalus soui Carriker, 1936.
Host: Crypturellus soui.
Distribution in Peru: San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Mulcticola Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1938

Mulcticola nacunda Carriker, 1945
Synonym: Mulcticola nacunda peruvianus Carriker, 1945.
Host: Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1945a); Valim and Kuabara (2015).

Neopsittaconirmus Conci, 1942
Neopsittaconirmus gracilis Guimarães, 1974.
Host: Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw, 1805).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Nothocotus Carriker, 1936

Nothocotus subsimilis Carriker, 1936
Host: Nothocercus nigrocapillus.
Distribution in Peru: Amazonas.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Oxylipeurus Mjöberg, 1910

Oxylipeurus chiniri Carriker, 1944
Synonym: Oxylipeurus c. variegatus Carriker, 1944; Oxylipeurus c. vetulae Carriker, 1944.
Host: Ortalis guttata.
Distribution in Peru: Pasco.
Reference: Carriker (1944b).

Oxylipeurus polytrapezius (Burmeister, 1838)
Synonym: Oxylipeurus gallipavonis (Harrison, 1916).
Host: Meleagris gallopavo.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Vásquez et al. (1965).

Paragoniocotes Cummings, 1916

Paragoniocotes aratingae Guimarães, 1947
Host: Psittacara leucophthalmus (Müller, 1776).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015).

Paragoniocotes fulvofasciatus (Picaglia, 1885)
Host: Brotogeris cyanoptera (Salvadori, 1891).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Paragoniocotes mirabilis (Carriker, 1940)
Host: Ara macao.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Paragoniocotes nanus Guimarães, 1947
Host: Amazona amazonica.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Paragoniocotes neivai Guimarães, 1940
Synonym: Paragoniocotes neivai illustris Carriker, 1950.
Host: Forpus sp.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Paragoniocotes pyrrhurae Guimarães, 1947
Host: Aratinga weddellii (Deville, 1851).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Passonomedea Carriker, 1944

Passonomedea emersoni Carriker, 1967
Host: Odontophorus stellatus (Gould, 1843).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Carriker (1967d).

Pectenosoma Ewing, 1929

Pectenosoma verrucose (Taschenberg, 1882)
Host: Crypturellus obsoletus; C. soui; C. undulatus.
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca, Junín, Pasco, Puno, San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1936, 1944a).

Pectinopygus Mjöberg, 1910

Pectinopygus grubeni Timmermann, 1967
Host: Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Pectinopygus occidentalis Thompson, 1948
Host: Pelecanus thagus.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Pectinopygus sp.
Host: Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914; Poikilocarbo gaimardi; Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831; S. nebouxii; S. variegate.
Distribution in Peru: Ica, Lima, Piura.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Penenirmus Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1938

Penenirmus albiventris (Scopoli, 1763)
Synonym: Penenirmus motacillae (Fabricius, 1777); Penenirmus troglodytis (Waterston, 1915).
Host: Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, 1809.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Sychra et al. (2014).

Penenirmus jungens (Kellogg, 1896)
Synonym: Penenirmus villosus Emerson and Johnson, 1961.
Host: Colaptes rupicola.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015).

Perineus Thompson, 1936
Host: Phoebastria irrorata.
Distribution in Peru: Piura.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Philoceanus Kellogg, 1903

Philoceanus amadoni Timmermann, 1961
Host: Hydrobates hornbyi; Hydrobates markhami (Salvin, 1883).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Philopterus Nitzsch, 1818

Philopterus sp.
Host: Amblycercus holosericeus (Deppe, 1830); Anabacerthia striaticollis; Asthenes helleri (Chapman, 1923); Chiroxiphia boliviana; Conopias cinchoneti (Tschudi, 1844); Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla; Leptopogon superciliaris; Lophotriccus pileatus (Tschudi, 1844); Machaeropterus pyrocephalus; Mionectes striaticollis; Mitrephanes olivaceus Berlepsch and Stolzmann, 1894; Myadestes ralloides; Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris (Lafresnaye, 1843); Ochthoeca rufipectoralis; Silvicultrix frontalis (Lafresnaye, 1847); Silvicultrix pulchella (Sclater and Salvin, 1876); Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus; Pipra fasciicauda; Pipreola intermedia; Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837); Thlypopsis ruficeps; Turdus fuscater; T. serranus.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Physconella Paine, 1914

Physconella kelloggi (Paine, 1913)
Host: Crypturellus atrocapillus (Tschudi, 1844); C. obsoletus; C. soui; Nothocercus nigrocapillus.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Physconella nothocercae Carriker, 1936
Host: Nothocercus nigrocapillus.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Physconelloides Ewing, 1927

Physconelloides anolaimae Carriker, 1961
Synonym: Physconelloides wolfdietrichi Kaddou, 1973.
Host: Patagioenas plumbea.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price et al. (1999).

Physconelloides cubanus Tendeiro, 1980
Host: Geotrygon montana.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price et al. (1999).

Physconelloides eurysema (Carriker, 1903)
Synonym: Physconelloides eurysema pretiosa Carriker, 1961; Physconelloides mattogrossensis (Guimarães, 1936); Physconelloides passerinae Emerson, 1957; Physconelloides picuii Tendeiro, 1987; Physconelloides talpacoti Carriker, 1963.
Host: Claravis pretiosa (Ferrari-Pérez, 1886).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price et al. (1999).

Physconelloides perijae Carriker, 1961
Synonym: Physconelloides perijae madgalenae Carriker, 1961; Physconelloides silvestris Tendeiro, 1980.
Host: Zentrygon frenata (Tschudi, 1843).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price et al. (1999).

Physconelloides robbinsi Price, Clayton and Hellenthal, 1999
Host: Metriopelia ceciliae.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price et al. (1999).

Physconelloides wisemani Emerson 1960
Host: Zenaida asiatica (Linnaeus, 1758).
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Price et al. (1999).

Picicola Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1938

Picicola faucetti Price and Weckstein, 2006
Host: Chelidoptera tenebrosa (Pallas, 1782).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2006).

Picicola galbulica Valim and Linardi, 2006
Host: Galbula cyanescens; Galbula tombacea Spix, 1824.
Distribution in Peru: Loreto, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2006).

Picicola naokii Price and Weckstein, 2006
Host: Bucco capensis Linnaeus, 1766; Cyphos macrodactylus Spix, 1824.
Distribution in Peru: Loreto, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2006).

Picicola oneilli Price and Weckstein, 2006
Host: Notharchus macrorhynchos (Gmelin, 1788).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2006).
Remark: the host is probably Notharchus hyperrhynchus (P. L. Sclater, 1856) since N. macrorhynchos is not reported in Peru.

Picicola osheai Price and Weckstein, 2006
Host: Malacoptila semicincta Todd, 1925.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2006).

Picicola striata Oniki and Emerson, 1981
Host: Malacoptila fulvogularis Sclater, 1854; Hapaloptila castanea (Verreaux, 1866).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios, San Martín.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2006).

Picicola valquii Price and Weckstein, 2006
Host: Notharchus tectus (Boddaert, 1783).
Distribution in Peru: Loreto.
Reference: Price and Weckstein (2006).

Picicola sp.
Host: Myiothlypis signata.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Pseudocophorus Carriker, 1940

Pseudocophorus peruvianus Carriker, 1940
Host: Pipreola intermedia Taczanowski, 1884.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1940).

Pseudolipeurus Carriker, 1936

Pseudolipeurus longipes (Piaget, 1880)
Host: Crypturellus obsoletus.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Pseudolipeurus subsimilis Carriker, 1936
Host: Crypturellus soui.
Distribution in Peru: San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Pseudolipeurus taoi Carriker, 1936
Host: Tinamus tao Temminck, 1815.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Pseudophilopterus Carriker, 1936

Pseudophilopterus hirsutus Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Pseudophilopterus hirsutus adspersus Carriker, 1961.
Host: Crypturellus undulatus.
Distribution in Peru: San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Pterocotes Ewing, 1929

Pterocotes aberrans (Carriker, 1903)
Synonym: Pterocotes aberrans colombianus Carriker, 1944; Pterocotes aberrans mexicanus Carriker, 1944; Pterocotes aberrans tinami Carriker, 1963.
Host: Tinamus tao.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Pterocotes tergalis (Carriker, 1936)
Synonym: Heptapsustergalis Carriker, 1936.
Host: Nothocercus nigrocapillus.
Distribution in Peru: Junín, Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Quadraceps Clay and Meinertzhagen, 1939

Quadraceps burhinoides Carriker, 1949
Host: Burhinus superciliaris (Tschudi, 1843).
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Carriker (1949a); Gomez-Puerta and Lujan-Vega (2018).

Quadraceps eugrammicus (Burmeister, 1838)
Synonym: Quadraceps grammicus (Gervais, 1844).
Host: Larus belcheri.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Príncipe et al. (2020).

Quadraceps falcigerus (Peters, 1931)
Host: Tringa flavipes.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Quadraceps fissus (Burmeister, 1838)
Synonym: Quadraceps crassipes (Denny, 1852); Quadraceps hiaticulae (Denny, 1842); Quadraceps opacus (Kellogg and Chapman, 1899)
Host: Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825.
Distribution in Peru: Ica, Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970); Tavera et al. (2019).

Quadraceps macrocephalus (Waterston, 1914)
Synonym: Quadraceps retractus Zlotorzycka, 1967.
Host: Charadrius alexandrinus.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).
Remark: dale recorded this louse in Charadrius alexandrinus, but this bird is not distributed in Peru, and thus, the identity of this host is uncertain.

Quadraceps (aff.) strepsilaris (Denny, 1842)
Synonym: Quadraceps euprepes (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902), Quadraceps lepidus (Kellogg and Kuwana, 1902), Quadraceps subcingulatus (Nitzsch, 1866).
Host: Arenaria interpres.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019).

Quadraceps titicacae Carriker, 1949
Host: Thinocorus orbignyianus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Lesson, 1831.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1949b).

Quadraceps sp.
Host: Anas flavirostri; Arenaria interpres; Charadrius nivosus (Cassin, 1858); Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758; Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831; Sternula lorata (Philippi and Landbeck, 1861); Tringa melanoleuca (Gmelin, 1789); Vanellus resplendens (Tschudi, 1843)
Distribution in Peru: Ica, Junin, Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970); Tavera et al. (2019).

Rallicola Johnston and Harrison, 1911

Rallicola (Rallicola) advenus (Kellogg, 1896)
Synonym: Rallicola minutotrabeculatus (Osborn, 1896).
Host: Fulica americana.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).
Remark: Dale (1970), registered this louse in Fulica americana, but currently this bird has no distribution in Peru, It is likely that it was still distributed in Peru in 1970.

Rallicola (Rallicola) andinus Carriker, 1949
Host: Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson, 1838).
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1949b); Dale (1970).

Rallicola (Rallicola) cephalosa (Carriker, 1944)
Host: Glyphorynchus spirurus.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1993).

Rallicola (Rallicola) chunchotambo (Carriker, 1944)
Synonym: Furnaricola chunchotambo Carriker, 1944; Furnaricola pyriglena Carriker, 1966; Rallicola guttata (Carriker, 1963); Rallicola pyriglena (Carriker, 1966).
Host: Pyriglena leuconota; Xiphorhynchus ocellatus (Spix, 1824); Xiphorhynchus triangularis (Lafresnaye, 1842).
Distribution in Peru: Junín, Madre de Dios, Pasco.
Reference: Carriker (1944c, 1966a).

Rallicola (Rallicola) fuliginosa (Carriker, 1963)
Host: Dendrocincla fuliginosa (Vieillot, 1818).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1993).

Rallicola (Rallicola) hambleri Price and Clayton, 1994
Host: Syndactyla rufosuperciliata (Lafresnaye, 1832).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1994).

Rallicola (Rallicola) harveyi Price and Clayton, 1993
Host: Deconychura longicauda (Pelzeln, 1868).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1993).

Rallicola (Rallicola) hylactiphaga (Carriker, 1966)
Synonym: Furnaricola hylactiphaga Carriker.
Distribution in Peru: Ancashr
Reference: Carriker (1966a); Price and Clayton (1994).
Remark: the distribution of S. magellanicus probably reached Peru in 1966; however, it is currently only found in Chile.

Rallicola (Rallicola) inexpectata (Carriker, 1966)
Synonym: Furnaricola inexpectata Carriker, 1966.
Host: Lepidothrix coeruleocapilla; Philydor erythrocercum; Xenops minutus (Sparrman, 1788).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios, Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1966a); Price and Clayton (1994).

Rallicola (Rallicola) keymerae Price and Clayton, 1993
Host: Dendrocolaptes picumnus Lichtenstein, 1820.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1993).

Rallicola (Rallicola) leeae Price and Clayton, 1994
Host: Thripadectes melanorhynchus.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1994).

Rallicola (Rallicola) minutus (Nitzsch, 1866)
Synonym: Rallicola bisetosus microcephalus Uchida, 1948; Rallicola parvulus (Piaget, 1880).
Host: Gallinula chloropus.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Rallicola (Rallicola) mooreae Price and Clayton, 1994
Host: Premnoplex brunnescens.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1994).

Rallicola (Rallicola) palmai Price and Clayton, 1993
Host: Campylorhamphus trochilirostris (Lichtenstein, 1820).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1993).

Rallicola (Rallicola) pipraphaga (Carriker, 1966)
Host: Pseudopipra pipra (Linnaeus, 1758).
Distribution in Peru: Junín, Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1993).

Rallicola (Rallicola) taylori Emerson, 1955
Host: Fulica gigantea.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Rallicola (Rallicola) titicacae (Carriker, 1944)
Synonym: Furnaricola punensis Carriker, 1966; Rallicola punensis (Carriker, 1966).
Host: Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot, 1817); Synallaxis cabanisi Berlepsch and Leverkühn, 1890.
Distribution in Peru: Arequipa, Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1944c, 1966a); Price and Clayton (1994).

Rallicola (Rallicola) tompkinsi Price and Clayton, 1994
Host: Sclerurus caudacutus.
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Price and Clayton (1994).

Rallicola sp.
Host: Automolus subulatus; Clibanornis rubiginosus; Dendrocincla fuliginosa; Fulica ardesiaca; Glyphorynchus spirurus; Margarornis squamiger (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1838); Thripadectes melanorhynchus; Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus (Lesson, 1840); Xiphorhynchus triangularis.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco, Junín.
Reference: Dale (1970); Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Rhopaloceras Taschenberg, 1882

Rhopaloceras brevitemporalis Carriker, 1936
Host: Crypturellus obsoletus.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Rhopaloceras oniscus (Nitzsch, 1866)
Host: Tinamus tao.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Rhopaloceras rudimentarius Carriker, 1936
Host: Crypturellus soui; Crypturellus undulatus.
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca; San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Saemundssonia Timmermann, 1936

Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) lari (Fabricius, 1780)
Synonym: Saemundssonia atricilla Carriker, 1956; Saemundssonia congener (Giebel, 1874); Saemundssonia gennei Touleshkov, 1959; Saemundssonia gonothorax (Giebel, 1874); Saemundssonia lari (Müller, 1927); Saemundssonia lariargentati Touleshkov, 1959; Saemundssonia larina (Picaglia, 1885); Saemundssonia muelleri Eichler, 1942; Saemundssonia timmermanni Touleshkov, 1959
Host: Larus belcheri; Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Gomez-Puerta and Cribillero (2015); Príncipe et al. (2020).

Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) tringae (Fabricius, 1780)
Synonym: Saemundssonia alpine (Giebel, 1874); Saemundssonia arctica (Mjöberg, 1910); Saemundssonia canuti (Denny, 1842); Saemundssonia fusiformis (Denny, 1842); Saemundssonia grubei Eichler, 1942; Saemundssonia lari (Grube, 1851); Saemundssonia tringae lobata Martens, 1974; Saemundssonia tringae sibiriae Martens, 1974; Saemundssonia variabilis (Denny, 1842).
Host: Calidris pusilla.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Tavera et al. (2019).

Saemundssonia sp.
Host: Sterna hirundinacea; Tringa flavipes.
Distribution in Peru: Lima.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Strigiphilus Mjöberg, 1910

Strigiphilus crucigerus Carriker, 1966
Host: Megascops guatemalae (Sharpe, 1875); Megascops ingens (Salvin, 1897); Megascops watsonii (Cassin, 1848).
Distribution in Peru: Madre de Dios.
Reference: Clayton (1990).

Strigiphilus speotyti (Osborn, 1896)
Host: Athene cunicularia.
Distribution in Peru: Junin, La Libertad, Lima.
Reference: Carriker (1966b); Dale (1970).

Strigiphilus sp.
Host: Bubo virginianus.
Distribution in Peru: Ica.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Strongylocotes Taschenberg, 1882

Strongylocotes complanatus (Piaget, 1880)
Host: Crypturellus obsoletus, C. variegatus.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1936, 1944a).

Strongylocotes nirmoides (Carriker, 1936)
Synonym: Nirmocotes nirmoides Carriker, 1936; Strongylocotes complanatus intermedius Carriker, 1944.
Host: Crypturellus obsoletus.
Distribution in Peru: Puno.
Reference: Carriker (1936, 1940).

Strongylocotes spinosus (Piaget, 1880)
Host: Nothocercus nigrocapillus.
Distribution in Peru: Junín.
Reference: Carriker (1936, 1944a).

Strongylocotes subconiceps Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Strongylocotes subconiceps caucae Carriker, 1953; Strongylocotes subconiceps felisae Carriker, 1953; Strongylocotes subconiceps perijae Carriker, 1944.
Host: Crypturellus soui.
Distribution in Peru: Cajamarca, San Martín.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Sturnidoecus Eichler, 1944

Sturnidoecus sp.
Host: Entomodestes leucotis.
Distribution in Peru: Cusco.
Reference: Soto-Patiño et al. (2018).

Tinamotaecola Carriker, 1944

Tinamotaecola andinae Carriker, 1944
Host: Tinamotis pentlandii Vigors, 1837.
Distribution in Peru: unknown.
Reference: Hellenthal et al. (2001).

Trabeculus Rudow, 1866

Trabeculus sp.
Host: Ardenna grisea (Gmelin, 1789).
Distribution in Peru: Piura.
Reference: Dale (1970).

Trichodopeostus Carriker, 1936

Trichodopeostus spinosus Carriker, 1936
Synonym: Trichodopeostus incertus Carriker, 1936.
Host: Nothocercus nigrocapillu.
Distribution in Peru: Amazonas.
Reference: Carriker (1936).

Checklist host – parasite

From 1936 to 2019, 266 species of lice were reported and recorded on birds in Peru. Of these, 234 were reported at the species level and 32 at the genus level only. The most frequently reported host species were the Mayriphilopterus ernsti and Machaerilaemus maestus species, each with five host species. The suborder Amblycera contains 94 species of lice distributed in two families: Menoponidae with 82 species and Ricinidae with 12 species. In the Ischnocera suborder only one family of 172 species of lice is recorded (table 1).

Table 1. Richness of lice species reported in birds from Peru: N° sp D, number of species determined (identification at species level); N° sp U, number of undetermined species (identified only up to genus level) Tabla 1. Riqueza de especies de piojos reportadas en aves de Perú: N ° sp D, número de especies determinadas (identificación a nivel de especie); N ° sp U, número de especies indeterminadas (identificadas solo hasta el nivel de género)

Regarding the hosts, 301 species of birds have been reported, only one of which was reported at the genus level. The bird species in which lice have been recorded are distributed in 23 orders, 61 families and 208 genera (table 2). The Passeriformes order is the group with the highest number of bird species with lice records, accounting for 51% of the total. The birds with the highest number of lice species reported are Crypturellus soui (Hermann, 1783) and Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789), with 10 species of lice in each, followed by Crypturellus obsoletus (Temminck, 1815), with nine species.

Table 2. Richness of birds by orders with record of lice in Peru. Table 2. Riqueza de aves (por órdenes) con registro de parasitación por piojos en Perú.

Figure 1 shows the distribution of the records of the species of mallophaga and their hosts in the departments of Peru. It shows that 17 departments have at least one report of the bird-mallophaga association, and seven departments have no reports to date (Ayacucho, Apurimac, Huancavelica, Lambayeque, Moquegua, Tacna and Ucayali). The department of Cusco has the highest malignant registry (n = 99), followed by Lima (n = 42). The departments with the highest number of hosts evaluated in the search for mallophaga were Lima (n = 52) and Junin (n = 43). Additionally, there are 19 international reports that do not specify the locality but rather only refer to Peru as the place of origin.

Fig. 1. Distribution of the reports of mallophaga and their hosts in the departments of Peru. Fig. 1. Distribución de los registros de malófagos y sus huéspedes en los departamentos de Perú.

Discussion

Peru is one of the megadiverse countries in bird fauna, being considered the second country with the highest diversity of birds after Colombia (Plenge et al., 2020). A total of 1,876 species of birds have been sighted in Peru, but studies and reports of mallophaga have been found in only 301. Therefore only 16% of bird species have been the object of study regaring this topic. The high proportion of species for which there are no reports or evaluations in relation to mallophaga suggests further host species of ectoparasites are yet to be described here, and new geographic records to be recored for Peru. The lack of studies in this regard in Peru is also reflected in the distribution of the reports (fig. 1); no studies of louse-associated birds are yet available from the departments of Ayacucho, Apurimac, Huancavelica, Lambayeque, Moquegua, Tacna and Ucayali.

From the checklist elaborated in this investigation, unidentified species such as Myrsidea sp. are shown to parasitize 77 species of birds, followed by Philopterus sp. and Ricinus sp. each with 23 and 19 species of bird hosts, respectively. Valim and Weckstein (2013) reported that there are many undescribed species in the genus Myrsidea, and according to our data most of this genus is reported as unidentified, and thus, it is likely to be new species. Likewise, Price and Dalgleish (2007) reported that the Ricinus and Philopterus genera are distributed in the order of Passeriformes birds, specific to certain families of this order. The vast majority of reports at the genus level were described by Soto-Patiño et al. (2018), who collected a large amount of material on birds from the Manu National Reserve in Cusco. While the large amount of material collected has likely made identification at the species level difficult, we encourage these authors to publish the findings of the material collected from Cusco.

The bird species of Columbia livia, Crypturellus obsoletus and C. soui presented the highest number of lice species reported in Peru. These species were also among those that harbored the highest number of lice species in the list prepared by Price et al. (2003) in which other birds, such as albatrosses, crows, pheasants, eagles and hawks, were also found to be hosts to a wide spectrum of lice.

Regarding the state of bird conservation, seven were found to be vulnerable, 20 near threatened, one in danger, and two in critical danger. Conservation status is important to measure the health of biodiversity, and at the same time, it is a tool to catalyze response actions in the face of the threat of reduction of the population of a species (IUCN, 2020). It is important to remember that the coextinction of taxa dependent on specific hosts (mutualists and parasites) and their hosts is a feature of the ongoing wave of global extinctions (Rózsa and Vas, 2015). In the case of critically endangered species, Pseudomenopon dolium is reported in other species of birds, and therefore, coexistence would not apply in association with Podiceps taczanowskii. However, Perineus oblongus has only been reported in the critically endangered Phoebastria irrorata, which if they were to no longer exist would represent a clear case of mutual extinction.

The present list provides a summary of the information available regarding lice associated with birds in the Peruvian territory. It was made in order to serve as a tool for the specific search of reports on this association, as well as describe the distribution of the lice and the birds evaluated in each department, including those that have no study on the subject. Further studies are needed on the study of birds and places lacking these ectoparasite studies in order to discover new associations, create geographical records and identify new species for science.

References

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Índex de Volum 19 (2021)