GBIF: Data paper

Distribution of aquatic beetles from the east of Morocco (Coleoptera, Polyphaga)

Mabrouki, Y.  Taybi, A. F.  Chavanon, G.  Berrahou, A.  Millán, A. 

Key words

Aquatic Coleoptera, Inventory, Northeastern of Morocco, Moulouya, Monitoring, New records

Reception date: 18/07/2018 | Acceptation date: 22/08/2018 | Publication date: 28/09/2018

© Copyright belongs to the authors, who license the journal Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica to publish the paper under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits its distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source, the journal Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, are cited.
Download: PDF |
Cite
Share on: |

Distribution of aquatic beetles from the east of Morocco (Coleoptera, Polyphaga)

Mabrouki, Y.  Taybi, A. F.  Chavanon, G.  Berrahou, A.  Millán, A. 

Abstract

Distribution of aquatic beetles from the east of Morocco (Coleoptera, Polyphaga)
We present old and new faunistic and distributional data on aquatic Polyphaga (Coleoptera) from the east of Morocco, comprising the Oriental Region and the basin of Moulouya River. A checklist of 91 species belonging to 27 genera and seven families is provided. Ochthebius quadrifossulatus (Hydraenidae) and Pomatinus substriatus
(Dryopidae) are new records for the basin of Moulouya River, and Helophorus occidentalis, H. discrepans, H. flavipes, Hydrochus flavipes, Anacena globulus, Enochrus fuscipennis and Hydrobius fuscipes, all belonging to the family Hydrophilidae, and Limnebius furcatus, Ochthebius aeneus and O. merinidicus (all Hydreanidae) are new for the entire studied area of Eastern Morocco. We found a clear dominance of the Palearctic elements, mainly Mediterranean, with a high proportion of Ibero–Maghrebian endemisms. This chorotype pattern is similar to those observed for other macroinvertebrates orders in the same study area.

Data published in GBIF (doi: 10.15470/saajc8)

Key words: Aquatic Coleoptera, Inventory, Northeastern of Morocco, Moulouya, Monitoring, New records

Resumen

Distribución de escarabajos acuáticos del este de Marruecos (Coleoptera, Polyphaga)
Se presentan antiguos y nuevos datos faunísticos y de distribución de Polyphaga (Coleoptera) acuáticos del este de Marruecos, incluidas la región oriental y la cuenca del río Moulouya. Se aporta un listado de 91 especies pertenecientes a 27 géneros y siete familias. Ochthebius quadrifossulatus (Hydraenidae) y Pomatinus substriatus (Dryopidae) constituyen nuevos registros en la cuenca del río Moulouya y Helophorus occidentalis, H. discrepans, H. flavipes, Hydrochus flavipes, Anacena globulus, Enochrus fuscipennis e Hydrobius fuscipes, pertenecientes todos ellos a la familia Hydrophilidae, y Limnebius furcatus, Ochthebius aeneus y O. merinidicus (todos ellos Hydreanidae) son nuevos en la totalidad del área estudiada del este de Marruecos. Encontramos un claro predominio de elementos paleárticos, principalmente mediterráneos, con una elevada proporción de endemismos ibero–magrebíes. Este patrón corotípico es similar a los observados en otros órdenes de macroinvertebrados en la misma área de estudio.

Datos publicados en GBIF (doi: 10.15470/saajc8)

Palabras clave: Coleópteros acuáticos, Inventario, Nordeste de Marruecos, Moulouya, Monitorización, Nuevos registros

Resum

Distribució d’escarabats aquàtics de l’est del Marroc (Coleoptera, Polyphaga)
Es presenten antigues i noves dades faunístiques i de distribució de Polyphaga (Coleoptera) aquàtics de l’est del Marroc, incloent–hi la regió oriental i la conca del riu Moulouya. S’aporta una llista de 91 espècies pertanyents a 27 gèneres i set famílies. Ochthebius quadrifossulatus (Hydraenidae) i Pomatinus substriatus (Dryopidae) són nous registres a la conca del riu Moulouya i Helophorus occidentalis, H. discrepans, H. flavipes, Hydrochus flavipes, Anacena globulus, Enochrus fuscipennis i Hydrobius fuscipes, tots pertanyents a la família Hydrophilidae, i Limnebius furcatus, Ochthebius aeneus i O. merinidicus (tots Hydreanidae) són nous a tota l’àrea estudiada de l’est del Marroc. Vam trobar un clar predomini d’elements paleàrtics, principalment mediterranis, amb una proporció elevada d’endemismes iberomagribins. Aquest patró corotípic és similar als observats en altres ordres de macroinvertebrats a la mateixa àrea d’estudi.

Dades publicades a GBIF (doi: 10.15470/saajc8)

Paraules clau: Coleòpters aquàtics, Inventari, Nord–est del Marroc, Moulouya, Monitoratge, Nous registres

Introduction

The biodiversity crisis is one of the major challenges facing humanity today (Purvis and Hector, 2000). This massive erosion is due to the increasing acceleration of species’ extinction rate due to anthropogenic activity, causing an irreversible loss of biological information with unpredictable consequences (Kerr and Currie, 1995; Rands et al., 2010). We live in an unprecedented era of biodiversity loss and biologists predict that tens of thousands of species and millions of populations will be extinct in the coming decades (Purvis and Hector, 2000; Barnosky et al., 2011). Biological diversity of continental aquatic ecosystems is generally higher than most other ecosystems (Darwall et al., 2008). As a result, the loss of biodiversity within inland waters would be much greater than in other ecosystems (Allan and Flecker, 1993; Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1999).

Aquatic macroinvertebrates play a vital role in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and consequently in the stability of ecosystems (Wallace and Webster, 1996). They also allow the diagnosis of alterations causes, the establishment of criteria for protection and restoration of interesting ecosystems and finally the integrated management of watersheds (Abellán et al., 2007). Thus, good knowledge of the species presence and distribution is necessary to protect biodiversity (Millán et al., 2014). In this framework, we carried out several studies regarding monitoring of aquatic ecosystems based on macroinvertebrate communities in Oriental Morocco and the basin of Moulouya River (Daoudi et al., 2017; Mabrouki et al., 2016b, 2017a, 2017c, in press; Taybi, 2016;
Taybi et al., 2016b, 2017b, 2018a), including aquatic Adephaga beetles (Taybi et al., 2017a).

Water beetles make up a large part of aquatic invertebrates (Jäch and Balke, 2008), so they are ideal candidates to be used as indicators of biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems, given their great specific and functional diversity, the great variety of habitats they are able to colonize and the general good taxonomic and faunistic knowledge (Bilton et al., 2006; Sánchez–Fernández et al., 2006).

With the aim of improving knowledge of the water beetles in the east of Morocco and completing previous studies (see Taybi et al., 2017a) on this group, we compiled a commented checklist of new and old records on the presence and distribution of the aquatic beetles belonging to the suborder Polyphaga) from Oriental Morocco and the Moulouya basin.

Material and methods

Study area

Morocco is currently divided into 12 regions, including the Oriental Region (fig. 1), which occupies almost all the eastern side of the country and covers an area of 90,127 km2 (see
Taybi et al., 2017a for details). The Oriental Region includes the wilaya of Oujda (Oujda–Angad prefecture) and the provinces of Berkane, Driouch, Figuig, Guercif, Jerada, Nador and Taourirt. The watershed of the Moulouya (fig. 1), which includes nearly 43,412 km2 of eastern Morocco, covers much of the Oriental Region. With a length of 600 km, the Moulouya is the largest Moroccan river flowing into the Mediterranean. The main tributaries are the Oued Ansegmir, Oued Melloulou, Oued Za and Oued Msoun, all permanent. Other tributaries are intermittent (3–5 flashfloods on average per year) (Bensaad et al., 2017; Mabrouki et al., 2017c).

Fig. 1. The Oriental Region of Morocco and the basin of Moulouya River. Fig. 1. Región oriental de Marruecos y cuenca del río Moulouya.

Sampling

In field surveys conducted from 2014 to 2017, more than 100 localities were collected along the basin of Moulouya River and Oriental Region of Morocco (see appendix for the complete list of localities). Most of these sampling sites were visited at least three times. Our goal was to document maximum macroinvertebrate biodiversity in the different microhabitats prospected at each sampling site. The samples of benthic fauna were collected using a kick net, landing nets and clamps. The macroinvertebrates, including water beetles, were identified to species level, placed in accordingly labeled tubes with alcohol at 70 % or 96 %, and deposited in the collections of aquatic macroinvertebrates at the Laboratory of Water Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Development of the University Mohammed Premier from Oujda (Morocco), and the Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia (Spain).

Chorological study

The chorological categories proposed for the 91 species of Oriental Morocco and the Moulouya watershed were ranked according to La Greca (1964, 1975) and Vigna Taglianti et al. (1992) for the western Palearctic fauna.

Abbreviations

The new species for Moulouya basin are marked by #, and those for the entire area by *.

Results

A checklist of 91 species belonging to 27 genera and seven families is provided (appendix 1). It is also published in GBIF as a dataset (doi: 10.15470/saajc8).

Appendix 1. Sampling sites with indications of the locality, altitude, geographic coordinates and type of the aquatic environment: DM, dam; AQ, abandoned quarry; AC, artificial channel; AP, artificial pond; RV, river; LG, Lagoon; PD, pond; AS, artificial source; NS, natural source. Apéndice 1. Sitios de muestreo con indicaciones de la localidad, altitud, coordenadas geográficas y tipo de ambiente acuático: DM, embalse; AQ, cantera abandonada; AC, canal artificial; AP, estanque artificial; RV, río; LG, laguna; PD, estanque; AS, fuente artificial; NS, fuente natural.

Family Helophoridae Latreille, 1802

Helophorus (Empleurus) porculus Bedel, 1881
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. This is a mountain taxon in Morocco where it is known in the Middle Atlas and Anti Atlas (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was previously recorded at Oujda by Chavanon et al. (2004).

Helophorus (Empleurus) rufipes (Bosc, 1791)
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is distributed in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Nador (Bennas, 2002).

Helophorus (Eutrichelophorus) oxygonus Bedel, 1881
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 03.05.14, 2 males, 2 females; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 1 male; Aghbalou, 13.06.14, 2 females; Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 1 male; Sources Berkine, 07.08.14, 2 males, 1 female.
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from some localities in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Debdou (Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, the species was found in the Eastern Middle Atlas (fig. 2). This species is not listed for Morocco in the catalogue of Hydrophiloidea from Paleartic region but for Algeria (Fikacek et al., 2015). Recently it has been recorded in the oriental part of the Rif Mountain (unpublished data).

Fig. 2. Distribution of Helophoridae species in the study area. Fig. 2. Distribución de especies de Helophoridae en el área de estudio.

Helophorus (Helophorus) cf. aquaticus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Material examined: sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 1 male, 2 females; Douar Ifrane, 07.08.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is known from some very scattered localities in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Charef River (Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, the species was found in the Middle Eastern Atlas, corresponding to upstream of Melloulou River (fig. 2). Despite this species having been recorded several times in Morocco, Fikacek et al. (2015) did not include it in any of the Maghrebian countries, so its presence in Morocco and the study area need confirmation.

Helophorus (Helophorus) occidentalis Angus, 1983*
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 03.05.14, 1 male; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 2 males; Aghbalou, 13.06.14, 2 males, 1 female; Irhdis, 14.07.14, 25 males and females; Boumia, 15.07.14, 15 males and females; Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 32 males and females; Aval Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 2 females; Anzegmir avant barrage, 15.07.14, 15 males and females; Outat Al Haj, 15.07.14, 3 males; Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 2 males, 1 female; Pont O. Charef, 07.08.14, 3 males; Petite cascade, 07.08.14, 2 males; Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is located mainly in the Middle Atlas (Benamar, 2015). H. occidentalis was found in the Upper and Middle Moulouya and in the Highlands (fig. 2). It is a new taxon for the studied area. It should be noted that morphologically it is not possible to separate this species from Helohphorus maritimus Rey, 1885, so its identification is only assumed because of the distribution of the specimens.

Helophorus (Rhopalhelophorus) algiricus Motschulsky, 1860
Distribution: Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is widely distributed in the northern part of the country including in the study area (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015) (fig. 2).

Helophorus (Rhopalhelophorus) discrepans Rey, 1885*
Material examined: Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 6 males, 3 females; Aghbalou, 13.06.14, 4 males.
Distribution: Turranic–Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it was recorded in the Middle Mountains and the Anti Atlas (Angus, 1987). H. discrepans was found in the Upper Moulouya (fig. 2). It is a new taxon for the studied area.

Helophorus (Rhopalhelophorus) fulgidicollis Motschulsky, 1860
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from a few localities in the far north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from the region of Nador (Bennas, 2002) and around Oujda (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Helophorus (Rhopalhelophorus) asturiensis Kuwert, 1885
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from a few localities in the far north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Oujda (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Helophorus (Rhopalhelophorus) longitarsis Wollaston, 1864
Material examined: Barrage Raknat Naam, 21.05.16, 2 males, 2 females.
Distribution: Turranic–Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is known from some very scattered localities in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded around Oujda (Chavanon et al., 2004). During the sampling period, H. longitarsis was found in a dam near Figuig (fig. 2).

Helophorus (Rhopalhelophorus) pici Guillebeau, 1893
Distribution: Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is known only from three localities: two refer to the Dades gorges in the region of Souss–Massa–Draa (Bouzidi, 1989) and one in the studied region around Oujda (Chavanon et al., 2004). We were unable to study material of this species, but Chavanon et al. (2004) refer that it was identified by Robert Angus, a specialist on this genus.

Helophorus (Rhopalhelophorus) flavipes Fabricius, 1792*
Mterial examined: Ait Boulmane, 03.05.14, 8 males, 10 females; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 5 males, 5 females; Aghbalou, 14.07.14, 4 males, 4 females; Boumia, 15.07.14, 1 male, 2 females; Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 1 male; Aval Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 2 males; Anzegmir avant barrage, 15.07.14, 3 males, 3 females; Missour, 15.07.14, 1 male; Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 3 females; Barrage Za, 07.08.14, 3 males; Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 2 females; Amont O. Bered, 07.08.14, 4 males, 3 females; Confluence Zbzit O. El Bared, 23.03.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Palearctic species. In Morocco it has a disperse presence in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). H. flavipes was found in the Upper Moulouya and in the Highlands (fig. 2). It is a new taxon for the studied area.

Family Hydrochidae Thomson, 1859

Hydrochus flavipennis Küster, 1852*
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 03.05.14, 3 males, 2 females; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 1 male; Aghbalou, 14.07.14, 1 male; Irhdis, 13.06.14, 2 males; Aval Anzegmir, 15.07.14, 5 males, 6 females, 17 larvae; O El Bared, 27.03.14, 3 males, 5 females.
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is spread mainly in the north part (Benamar, 2015). H. flavipennis Küster, 1852 was found in the Upper Moulouya (fig. 3). It is a new taxon for the studied area. Although this species is not mentioned for Morocco in Fikacek et al. (2015), it is a relatively common species in this country (Benamar, 2015); however, a deeper taxonomical study is needed to disentangle the possible existence of a complex of species within this species.

Fig. 3. Distribution of Hydrochidae, Dryopidae and Scirtidae species in the study area. Fig. 3. Distribución de especies de Hydrochidae, Dryopidae y Scirtidae en el área de estudio.

Hydrochus grandicollis Kiesenwetter, 1870
Distribution: West–Mediterranean species. Quite rare in Morocco, known from some very scattered localities (Benamar, 2015). In the Moulouya basin, it was recorded from Berkane (Benamar, 2015).

Hydrochus smaragdineus Fairmaire, 1879
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 03.05.14, 1 male; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 10 males, 13 females; Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 2 males, 1 female; Petite cascade, 17.05.14, 2 males; Douar Ifrane, 07.08.14, 1 female.
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is scattered in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from the Beni Snassen mountains (Chavanon et al., 2004). Our study significantly increases its previous range of distribution in the study area (fig. 3).

Family Hydrophilidae Latreille, 1802

Anacaena bipustulata (Marsham, 1802)
Material examined: Amont O. Bered, 07.08.14, 1 male, 1 female.
Distribution: Euro–Maghrebian species, widely distributed in the northern part of Morocco (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period,
A. bipustulata was found upstream of Melloulou River (fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Distribution of Hydrophilidae species in the study area. Fig. 4. Distribución de especies de Hydrophilidae en el área de estudio.

Anacaena globulus (Paykull, 1798)*
Material examined: Irhdis, 14.07.14, 2 males, 2 females; Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is confined to the north–west (Benamar, 2015). A. globulus was found in the Eastern Middle Atlas (fig. 4). It is a new species for the study area.

Anacaena lutescens (Stephens, 1829)
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 13.06.14, 1 male, 3 females; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Holarctic species. In Morocco it is confined to the extreme north–west (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Berkane (Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, A. lutescens was found in the Upper Moulouya (fig. 4).

Paracymus aeneus (Germar, 1824)
Distribution: Centroasiatic–Euro–Mediterranean species, dispersed throughout the Morocco (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from the region of Nador (Bennas, 2002; Chavanon et al., 2004).

Berosus (Berosus) affinis Brullé, 1835
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 13.06.14, 1 male; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 6 males, 9 females, 6 larvae; Aghbalou, 14.07.14, 7 males, 6 females; Irhdis, 13.06.14, 14 males and females; Barrage Za, 07.08.14, 1 male; Amont Taourit, 19.07.14, 4 females; Sources Berkine, 07.08.14, 1 male; Amont Berkine, 07.08.14, 1 larvae; Douar Imzaghrou, 15.08.14, 2 larvae; Debdou, 27.04.16, 1 male, 1 female; Bassin Oujda, 23.04.16, 3 females.
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species, widely distributed in Morocco (Benamar, 2015). Our study considerably increasesits range in the Oriental region and the Moulouya basin (fig. 4).

Berosus (Berosus) hispanicus Küster, 1847
Material examined: Pont Hassan II, 03.14.14, 3 females, 3 larvae; Pré–Estuaire, 03.14.14, 3 females; Kariat Arekman, 01.05.16, 2 males, 2 females.
Distribution: Afrotropical–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in Morocco (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region and the Moulouya watershed, B. hispanicus is linked to the coastal domains (fig. 4).

Berosus (Enoplurus) guttalis Rey, 1883
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. Not very common in Morocco, known from some very dispersed localities (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded around Nador (Bennas, 2002).

Enochrus (Lumetus) bicolor complex
Material examined: Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 1 male, 1 female; Oued Messoussate, 02.05.16, 1 female; Figuig, 22.05.16, 1 female.
Distribution: West–Palearctic species. Widely distributed in Morocco (Benamar, 2015). Our study increases its distribution area in the Oriental region and the Moulouya watershed (fig. 4).

Enochrus (Lumetus) fuscipennis (Thomson, 1884)*
Material examined: Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 1 male, 2 females; Aghbalou, 13.06.14, 2 males.
Distribution: West–Palearctic species. Quite rare in Morocco, known only in a few localities scattered in the north (Benamar, 2015). This is a new species for the area studied, E. fuscipennis was found in the Upper Moulouya (fig. 4).

Enochrus (Lumetus) politus (Küster, 1849)
Material examined: Ain Chebbak, 28.04.16, 2 males, 2 females; Barrage Zriga, 21.05.16, 7 males, 10 females; Oued Oumassine, 12.05.16, 1 male, 2 females; Kariat Arekman, 01.05.16, 3 females; Dardoura, 02.05.16, 3 males, 2 females; Oued Ouzej, 30.04.16, 3 males, 3 females.
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in Morocco (Benamar, 2015). On the other hand, this study greatly increases its range in the Oriental region and the catchment area of the Moulouya (fig. 4).

Enochrus (Lumetus) segmentinotatus Kuwert, 1888
Distribution: Afrotropical–Palearctic species. In Morocco it is known only from the Western Rif (Benamar, 2015) and from the Oriental region in Figuig (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Helochares lividus (Forster, 1771)
Material examined: Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 2 females; Irhdis, 13.06.14, 2 males, 2 females; Pont Hassan II, 18.05.14, 2 males; Pré–Estuaire, 18.05.14, 5 larvae; Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 1 male; Pont O. Charef, 07.08.14, 1 female; Barrage Za, 07.08.14, 1 female; Sidi Moussa, 29.05.17, 1 male; Abou Lekhal, 22.05.16, 2 females; Barrage Sfissef, 21.05.16, 1 larva.
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in the northern part of Morocco (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). Our study significantly increases its range in the Oriental region and the Moulouya basin (fig. 4).

Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758)*
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 13.06.14, 4 males, 2 females ; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 3 males, 3 females.
Distribution: Holarctic species. In Morocco it is known from a few localities scattered in the north (Benamar, 2015). H. fuscipes was found in the Upper Moulouya corresponding to the Eastern Middle Atlas (fig. 5). It is a new species for the study area.

Fig. 5. Distribution of Hydrophilidae species in the study area. Fig. 5. Distribución de especies de Hydrophilidae en el área de estudio.

Hydrochara flavipes (Steven, 1808)
Distribution: Turanic–Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is known from some localities scattered in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the studied area, it was recorded in the Middle Moulouya (Alluaud, 1926).

Hydrophilus pistaceus Laporte, 1840
Material examined: Oued Mariouari, 12.05.16, 1 larva; Sidi Moussa, 29.05.17, 2 males, 2 females.
Distribution: West–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is distributed in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, H. pistaceus was found in Mariouari River in the North and Jbel Sidi Moussa (fig. 5).

Laccobius (Dimorpholaccobius) atratus Rottenberg, 1874
Material examined: Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 1 male; Aval Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 1 male; Outat Al Haj, 15.07.14, 3 males; Pont Hassan II, 18.05.14, 1 male; Amont Gafait, 17.05.14, 2 males, 4 females; Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 4 males, 6 females; Sources Berkine, 07.08.14, 1 male, 2 larvae.
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. Not common in Morocco, known from some disperse localities (Benamar, 2015). It was recorded recently in the study area at Jerada (Benamar, 2015). Out study may increase its distribution considerably (fig. 5).

Laccobius (Dimorpholaccobius) atrocephalus atrocephalus Reitter, 1872
Material examined: Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 2 males; Anzegmir avant barrage, 15.07.14, 1 male; Aval Anzegmir, 15.07.14, 3 males, 3 females; Missour, 15.07.14, 2 males; Pont Hassan II, 18.05.14, 1 female; Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 2 males, 3 females; Pont O. Charef, 07.08.14, 2 females; Petite cascade, 17.05.14, 2 males; Oued Lakhrouf, 07.08.14, 2 females; Amont Gafait, 17.05.14, 2 females; Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 9 males, 4 females; Barrage Za, 07.08.14, 1 female; Confluence Zbzit O. El Bared, 23.03.14, 2 females; Barrage Zriga, 21.05.16, 1 male, 3 females; Barrage Sfissef, 21.05.16, 1 male, 4 females; Abou Lekhal, 22.05.16, 9 males, 12 females.
Distribution: Afrotropical–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in the northern part of Morocco (Benamar, 2015). Our study significantly increases its range in the Oriental region and the basin of Moulouya River (fig. 5).

Laccobius (Dimorpholaccobius) hispanicus Gentili, 1974
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco, the species is distributed mainly in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In Eastern Morocco, it was recorded from Zeghzel River and Nador vicinity (Bennas, 2002; Chavanon et al., 2004).

Laccobius (Dimorpholaccobius) moraguesi Régimbart, 1898
Material examined: Oued Kert, 12.05.16, 3 males, 2 females.
Distribution: Holomediterranean species. In Morocco it is confined to the far north, including the studied area (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, it was found in the Oriental Rif (fig. 5).

Laccobius (Dimorpholaccobius) neapolitanus Rottenberg, 1874
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in the northern part of Morocco (Benamar, 2015), including the Oriental region (Bennas, 2002; Chavanon et al., 2004).

Laccobius (Dimorpholaccobius) sinuatus Motschulsky, 1849
Distribution: Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is common in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the Moulouya basin, it was recorded from Upper Moulouya (Berrahou et al., 2001).

Laccobius (Dimorpholaccobius) ytenensis Sharp, 1910
Material examined: Mare à Debdou, 27.04.16, 1 male, 1 female, 1 larva.
Distribution: Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is confined to the northwest (Benamar, 2015). In the study area, it was recorded from the Oriental Rif (Bennas, 2002). During the sampling period, L. ytenensis was found around Debdou (fig. 5).

Laccobius (Hydroxenus) revelieri Perris, 1864
Distribution: Afrotropical West–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from a few localities in the north–west (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Figuig (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Laccobius (Microlaccobius) gracilis gracilis Motschulsky, 1855
Material examined: Irhdis, 13.06.14, 1 female; Anzegmir avant barrage, 15.07.14, 1 male; Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 1 male; Pont O. Charef, 07.08.14, 1 male; Amont Gafait, 17.05.14, 2 males; Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 5 males; 5 females; Amont Taourit, 07.06.14, 1 male; Amont O. Bered, 07.08.14, 1 female; Abou Lekhal, 22.05.16, 6 males, 5 females.
Distribution: Euro–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in the northern part of Morocco (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). Our study can significantly increase its range in the Oriental region and the catchment area of the Moulouya (fig. 5).

Laccobius (Notoberosus) pommayi Bedel, 1881
Distribution: Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is confined to the extreme north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Nador (Bennas, 2002).

Coelostoma (Coelostoma) hispanicum (Küster, 1848)
Material examined: Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 3 males, 3 females; Debdou, 27.04.16, 2 males; Source Tiffert, 28.04.16, 1 female; Aval Zeghzel, 28.04.16, 2 males; Jbel Mehser, 19.09.15, 3 males, 2 females; Beni Waklane, 31.05.17, 2 females; Wertass, 31.05.17, 3 males; Dardoura, 02.05.16,1 female; Oued Ouzej, 30.04.16, 2 females; Oued Selouane, 30.04.16, 1 female; Gourougou, 06.02.15, 3 males; Oued Mariouari, 12.05.16, 1 male; Barrage Sfissef, 21.05.16, 1 female; Figuig, 22.05.16, 1 male.
Distribution: West–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in the northern part of Morocco (Benamar, 2015). Our study makes it possible to increase its range considerably in the Oriental region and the Moulouya basin (fig. 5).

Family Hydraenidae Mulsant, 1844

Hydraena (Hydraena) rigua d’Orchymont, 1931
Material examined: Irhdis, 13.06.14, 2 males, 2 females; Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 2 females; Aval Zeghzel, 28.04.16, 1 male.
Distribution: Maghrebian species. Widely distributed in the northern part of Morocco and in the study area (Berrahou et al., 2001; Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, H. rigua was found in the Upper Moulouya and in Oued Zeghzel (fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Distribution of Hydraenidae species in the study area. Fig. 6. Distribución de especies de Hydraenidae en el área de estudio.

Hydraena (Hydraena) scabrosa d’Orchymont, 1931
Distribution: Maghrebian species. Not common in Morocco, known from a few localities in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region and the Moulouya watershed, it was recorded from Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Hydraena (Phothydraena) cf. hernandoi Fresneda and Lagar, 1990
Material examined: Irhdis, 13.06.14, 1 female.
Distribution: Ibero–Maghreb species. In Morocco it is scattered in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). It could be a new taxon for the Moulouya watershed, but it must be confirmed by the capture of a male. Only one female was found during the sampling period in the Upper Moulouya (fig. 6).

Limnebius (Bilimneus) evanescens Kiesenwetter, 1866
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is scattered in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In eastern Morocco, it was recorded from Berkane (Benamar, 2015).

Limnebius (Limnebius) fretalis Peyerimhoff, 1913
Material examined: Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 1 male, 2 females; Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is distributed mainly in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the study area, it was recorded from eastern Rif (Bennas, 2002) and Berkane (Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, L. fretalis was found in the Upper Moulouya, including Anzegmir River (fig. 6).

Limnebius (Limnebius) furcatus Baudi di Selve, 1872*
Material examined: Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 1 male; Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 2 males.
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is confined to the north–west (Benamar, 2015).It is a new species for the study area. L. furcatus was found in Anzegmir and Melloulou Rivers, corresponding respectively to the Eastern High Atlas and Middle Atlas (fig. 6).

Limnebius (Limnebius) maurus Balfour–Browne, 1979
Material examined: Aval Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 1 female; Aval Anzegmir, 15.07.14, 2 males, 1 female; Tindint, 15.07.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is confined to the north–west (Benamar, 2015). In Eastern Morocco, it was reported from Debdou (Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, L. maurus was found in Anzegmir River and Middle Moulouya (fig. 6).

Limnebius (Limnebius) pilicauda Guillebeau, 1896
Distribution: Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is scattered in the northern half (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Berkane and Jerada (Benamar, 2015).

Ochthebius (Aulacochthebius) exaratus Mulsant, 1844
Distribution: Southern Palearctic Afrotropical species. In Morocco it is confined to the north–west (Benamar, 2015). In the Moulouya basin, it was recorded from High Moulouya and upstream Za River (Berrahou et al., 2001; Benamar, 2015).

Ochthebius (Asiobates) aeneus Stephens, 1835*
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 13.06.14, 1 male; Aval Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 1 male; Outat Al Haj, 15.07.14, 2 males; Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 1 male; Amont O. Bered, 07.08.14, 2 females; Douar Ifrane, 07.08.14, 1 female; Sources Berkine, 07.08.14, 1 male; Confluence Zbzit O. El Bared, 23.03.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. Known in Morocco of some scattered localities (Benamar, 2015). It is a new taxon for the study area. During the sampling period, the species was found along Anzegmir and Melloulou Rivers and later in Middle Moulouya (fig. 6).

Ochthebius (Asiobates) maculatus Reiche, 1869
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is scattered to the north (Benamar, 2015). In the area studied, it was recorded from Nador and Melg El Ouidane (Bennas, 2002; Chavanon et al., 2004).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) auropallens Fairmaire, 1879
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known only from a few localities scattered in the northern half (Benamar, 2015). In the study area, it was recorded from Outat Al Haj and Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) bifoveolatus Waltl, 1835
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is scattered throughout the country (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded around Nador (Bennas, 2002).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) cuprescens Guillebeau, 1893
Distribution: West–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from some localities scattered to the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Figuig (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) difficilis Mulsant, 1844
Material examined: Barrage Zriga, 21.05.16, 1 female; Abou Lekhal, 22.05.16, 1 male.
Distribution: Species Holo–Mediterranean. In Morocco it is distributed in the northern half (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Figuig (Chavanon et al., 2004) and Jerada (Benamar, 2015).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) marinus (Paykull, 1798)
Distribution: Holarctic species. In Morocco and the Oriental region, it was recorded at the mouth of Moulouya (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) mauretanicus Jäch, 1990
Distribution: Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is related mainly to the Rif (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded around Nador (Bennas, 2002).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) mediterraneus (Ienieştea, 1988)
Material examined: Barrage Zriga, 21.05.16, 1 female.
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is widely distributed in the northern part including the study area (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). During the study period, O. mediterraneus was found in the south of the Oriental region around Figuig (fig. 7).

Fig. 7. Distribution of Hydraenidae species in the study area. Fig. 7. Distribución de especies de Hydraenidae en el área de estudio.

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) meridionalis Rey, 1885
Distribution: Centroasiatic–Euro–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from some remote localities in the northern half (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Lower Moulouya (Bennas, 2002).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) merinidicus Ferro, 1985*
Material examined: Boumia, 15.07.14, 1 male; Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 2 males; Petite cascade, 17.05.14, 1 female; Amont Gafait, 17.05.14, 1 male; Amont Berkine, 07.08.14, 1 female.
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is known from some localities, scattered in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). This is a new taxon for the study area. During the sampling period, O. merinidicus was found in Za and Melloulou Rivers, in addition to Upper Moulouya (fig. 7).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) nanus Stephens, 1829
Distribution: West–Euro–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is scattered throughout the northern half (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Oujda and Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) notabilis Rosenhauer, 1856
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is known from a few localities in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Figuig (Benamar, 2015).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) punctatus Stephens, 1829
Material examined: Pont O. Charef, 07.08.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from a few localities in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004). During the sampling period, the species was found in the Za River (fig. 8).

Fig. 8. Distribution of Hydraenidae species in the study area. Fig. 8. Distribución de especies de Hydraenidae en el área de estudio.

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) quadrifossulatus Waltl, 1835#
Material examined: Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is distributed in the north–west (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was reported from Figuig (Benamar, 2015). On the other hand, it is a new species for the basin of Moulouya River. During the sampling period, O. quadrifossulatus was found in the Za River (fig. 8).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) quadrifoveolatus Wollaston, 1854
Material examined: Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 1 male; Irhdis, 14.07.14, 1 female; Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 15 males and females; Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 3 males, 4 females; Anzegmir avant barrage, 15.07.14, 1 female; Tamdafelt, 13.06.14, 1 male; Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 5 males, 5 females; Amont Gafait, 17.05.14, 1 female; Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 5 females; Debdou, 27.04.16, 1 female; Barrage Zriga, 21.05.16, 1 female; Abou Lekhal, 22.05.16, 1 male, 1 female.
Distribution: Afrotropical–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in the northern part including the studied area (Benamar, 2015). It is the most abundant Ochthebius in the Moulouya watershed and the Oriental region (fig. 8).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) semisericeus complex
Distribution: West–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known only in the Oriental region, from where it was recorded from Lower Moulouya (Chavanon et al., 2004). This taxon needs a deep morphological study to confirm its taxonomical status.

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) serratus Rosenhauer, 1856
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. In Morocco it is known from a few localities in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Figuig (Benamar, 2015).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) subinteger Mulsant and Rey, 1861
Distribution: Western–Palearctic species. In Morocco it is known from three localities in the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Nador (Bennas, 2002).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) subpictus Wollaston, 1857
Material examined: Oued Charef, 17.05.14, 1 male.
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is scattered almost all over the country (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from the mouth of Moulouya (Chavanon et al., 2004). During the sampling period, the species was found in the Za River (fig. 8).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) tacapasensis tacapasensis Ferro, 1983
Material examined: Barrage Zriga, 21.05.16, 3 males, 4 females; Barrage Sfissef, 21.05.16, 1 male; Abou Lekhal, 22.05.16, 2 males, 5 females.
Distribution: West–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in Morocco including the studied area (Bennas, 2002; Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, O. tacapasensis was found in the southeast of the Oriental region (fig. 8).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) tivelunus Ferro, 1984
Material examined: Barrage Zriga, 21.05.16, 1 male, 3 females.
Distribution: Endemic Moroccan species, known from only from some localities (Benamar, 2015). During the sampling period, O. tivelunus was found around Figuig (fig. 8).

Ochthebius (Ochthebius) viridescens Ienieştea, 1988
Distribution: Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is dispersed mainly in the north–west (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from region of Nador (Bennas, 2002) and Figuig (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Family Elmidae Curtis, 1830

Elmis maugetii velutina Reiche, 1879
Material examined: Sources Berkine, 07.08.14, 2 males, 1 female, 3 larvae.
Distribution: Maghrebian subspecies. In Morocco it is known from the Rif, the High and Middle Atlas (Benamar, 2015). In the area studied, it was recorded from Upper Moulouya (Berrahou et al., 2001). During the sampling period, the species was found in Melloulou River (fig. 9).

Fig. 9. Distribution of Elmidae species in the study area. Fig. 9. Distribución de especies de Elmidae en el área de estudio.

Esolus parallelepipedus P. W. J. Müller, 1806
Distribution: South–Euro–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is linked to the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Zeghzel (Benamar, 2015).

Esolus pygmaeus P. W. J. Müller, 1806
Distribution: Euro–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is confined mainly to the northwest (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Oujda and Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Limnius intermedius Fairmaire, 1881
Distribution: Euro–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is widely distributed in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Oujda and Lower Moulouya (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Limnius opacus opacus P. W. J. Müller, 1806
Distribution: Euro–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is confined to the great massifs (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Normandia nitens P. W. J. Müller, 1817
Distribution: Euro–Mediterranean species. In Morocco, it is known especially in the Middle Atlas (Dakki, 1986). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Normandia villosocostata Reiche, 1879
Material examined: Sebra, 03.04.14, 12 larvae; Safsaf, 03.04.14, 7 larvae; Pont Hassan II, 03.04.14, 13 larvae.
Distribution: Maghrebian species. Widely distributed in the northern half of Morocco, thus the area of our study (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). It is the most abundant Elmidae in the Moulouya watershed and the Oriental region (fig. 9).

Oulimnius fuscipes Reiche, 1879
Distribution: Ibero–Maghrebian species. Widely distributed in the northern half of Morocco (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Oulimnius troglodytes Gyllenhal, 1827
Material examined: Irhdis, 14.07.14, 1 male; Boumia, 15.07.14, 1 female; Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 28 males and females; Aval Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 7 larvae; Anzegmir avant barrage, 15.07.14, 13 larvae.
Distribution: Atlanto–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is known from few disperse ocalities (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Tafoghalt (Chavanon et al., 2004). During the sampling period, O. troglodytes was found in the Upper Moulouya including Anzegmir River (fig. 9).

Stenelmis consobrina consobrina Dufour, 1835
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is confined to the north (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Lower Moulouya (Chavanon et al., 2004). Family Dryopidae Billberg, 1820

Dryops algiricus Lucas, 1846
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is widely distributed in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the watershed of the Moulouya and the Oriental region, it was recorded from Nador (Bennas, 2002) and Debdou (Benamar, 2015).

Dryops gracilis Karsch, 1881
Material examined: Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 4 males; Aghbalou, 13.06.14, 1 male; Irhdis, 14.07.14, 3 males, 4 females; Boumia, 15.07.14, 1 male; Pont Gafait, 17.05.14, 1 female; Barrage Za, 07.08.14, 1 female; Amont Taourit, 07.06.14, 1 female; Amont O. Bered, 07.08.14, 1 male; Sources Berkine, 07.08.14, 3 females; Amont Berkine, 07.08.14, 4 males, 1 female.
Distribution: Afrotropical–Mediterranean species. Widely distributed in Morocco including in the studied area (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). Our study significantly increases its distribution area in the basin of the Moulouya and the Oriental region (fig. 3).

Dryops sulcipennis A. Costa, 1883
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 03.05.14, 2 males, 2 females; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 5 males, 5 females; Boumia, 15.07.14, 2 males; Barrage Za, 07.08.14, 1 male; Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 1 male, 1 female; Amont O. Bered, 07.08.14, 3 males, 3 females; Sources Berkine, 07.08.14, 1 male, 1 female; Confluence Zbzit O. El Bared, 23.03.14, 2 females.
Distribution: Holo–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is widely distributed in the northern part and thus in the study area (Chavanon et al., 2004; Benamar, 2015). Our study significantly increases its distribution range in the basin of the Moulouya and the Oriental region (fig. 3).

Pomatinus substriatus P. W. J. Müller, 1806#
Material examined: Anzar Oufounas, 15.07.14, 2 larvae.
Distribution: Turranic–European–Mediterranean species. In Morocco it is widely dispersed in the northern part (Benamar, 2015). In the Oriental region it was recorded from Figuig (Alluaud, 1926). It is a new species for the Moulouya. During the sampling period, P. substriatus was found Upstream of Anzegmir River (fig. 3).

Family Scirtidae Fleming, 1821

Cyphon siculus Tournier, 1868
Material examined: Ait Boulmane, 03.05.14, 4 larvae; Ait Oha Ohaki, 13.06.14, 3 larvae.
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Eastern Morocco, it was recorded from Berkane (Chavanon et al., 2004) (fig. 3). Only larvae were collected, so we need caught adults to confirm its presence in the study area.

Elodes marocanus Pic, 1939.
Distribution: Moroccan endemic species, marocanus was before a variety of chobauti Abeille, 1894 and became a full species. In eastern Morocco, it was recorded from Guerraouaou (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Hydrocyphon australis Lindner, 1864
Material examined: Sources O. Bered, 01.06.14, 3 larvae; Aval Zeghzel, 28.04.16, 3 larvae.
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In eastern Morocco, it was recorded from Zeghzel (Chavanon et al., 2004) where it was found during the sampling period (fig. 3). Only larvae were collected, so we need caught adults to confirm its presence in the study area.

Discussion

The ninety–one species of Polyphaga found in this study (including the two doubtful species) represent an important richness, proportionally comparable to the number of species found in other areas with similar environmental conditions (Sánchez–Fernández et al., 2004) and more deeply studied for this group of water beetles. Our study adds considerably to the previous knowledge about these insects in the study area, with two new records for the Moulouya basin and ten species for the entire area. These species are:
Ochthebius quadrifossulatus and Pomatinus substriatus, new to the Moulouya basin, and
Helophorus occidentalis, H. discrepans, H. flavipes, Hydrochus flavipennis, Anacaena globulus, Enochrus fuscipennis, Hydrobius fuscipes, Limnebius furcatus, Ochthebius aeneus and O. merinidicus, new to the entire study area.

This number of species reflects a high aquatic habitat heterogeneity in the study area, in a wide e variety of water bodies, from lotic with low conductivity waters, to very highly saline and lentic waters (Chavanon et al., 2004). Unfortunately, these habitats are currently not only endangered due to climate change, but also due to to the drying up of several streams, deforestation and urbanization by intensification of agriculture, infrastructure development, water pollution by fertilizers for agriculture, mosquito control and, especially, by wastewaters (Bensaad et al., 2017; Mabrouki et al., 2016a, 2017a; Taybi et al., 2016a; Yahya et al., 2017). Indeed, many species recorded earlier in the Oriental region were not collected, a finding observed for other aquatic macroinvertebrates groups (Mabrouki et al., 2016b, 2017a; Taybi et al., 2017a, 2017b), several species of which have decreased their regional range.

The species pool of aquatic Polyphagous beetles from Oriental Morocco and the watershed of the Moulouya can be subdivided into three main chorological categories (fig. 10): first, the Mediterranean chorotypes, that are dominant and which constitute 64 % of the recorded species; second, the Palearctic chorotypes that constitute 25 %; and third, the Cosmopolitan chorotypes that constitue 11% and whose distribution extends beyond the Mediterranean either in India or in the Afrotropical region. Within the Mediterranean Polyphagan elements, there is a clear predominance of the endemic chorotype in the broadest sense (55 %), followed by the West–Mediterranean chorotype (27 %) and finally the Atlanto and Holomediterranean, each with 17 %. Despite being a Maghrebian country, the Ibero–Maghrebian endemics showed a similar richness value to that of the Maghrebian endemics. A similar pattern has been found in Polyphaga for all the Moroccan territory (Benamar, 2015).

Fig. 10. Chorological categories of the studied species. Fig. 10. Categorías corológicas de las especies estudiadas.

The clear dominance of the Palearctic elements, typically Mediterranean, and the high rate of Ibero–Maghrebian endemism in the coleopterological population of the study area shows a strong similarity to the chorotypes found for other macroinvertebrates orders (Mabrouki et al., 2016b, 2017c; Taybi et al., 2017a, 2017b, 2018b).

References

Abellán, P., Sanchez–Fernandez, D., Velasco, J., Millán A., 2007. Effectiveness of protected area networks in representing freshwater biodiversity: the case of a Mediterranean river basin (SE Spain). Aquatic Conservation, 17: 361–374.
Allan, J. D., Flecker, A. S., 1993. Biodiversity conservation in running waters: Identifying the major factors that threaten destruction of riverine species and ecosystems. Bioscience, 43: 32–43.
Alluaud, C., 1926. Compte rendu d’une mission zoologique dans le Maroc Sud–oriental (Avril–Mai 1924). Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc, VI(1–6): 12–28.
Angus, R. B., 1987. A revision of the species of Helophorus Fabricius, subgenus Atracthelophorus Kuwert, occurring in France, the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, with a note on H. discrepans Rey in Morocco (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie, 4: 45–60.
Barnosky, A. D., Matzke, N., Tomiya, S., Wogan, G. O. U., Swartz, B., Quental, T. B., Marshall, C., McGuire, J. L., Lindsey, E. L., Maguire, K. C., Mersey, B., Ferrer, E. A., 2011. Has Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature, 471: 51–57.
Benamar, L., 2015. Les coléoptères aquatiques du Maroc: Atlas, Biogéographie et degré de vulnérabilité. PhD thesis, Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Faculté Des Sciences Tetouan, Maroc [in French].
Bennas, N., 2002. Coléoptères aquatiques Polyphaga du Rif (Nord du Maroc): Faunistique, Ecologie et Biogéographie. PhD thesis, Tetouan [in French].
Bensaad, H., Mabrouki, Y., Taybi, A. F., Chafi, A., 2017. Assessment of wastewater discharges from Taourirt City on the water quality of the Oued Za (Eastern Morocco). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 8(7): 2365–2371.
Berrahou, A., Cellot, B., Richoux, P., 2001. Distribution longitudinale des macroinvertébrés benthiques de la Moulouya et de ses principaux affluents (Maroc). Annales de Limnologie, 37(3): 223–235.
Bilton, D. T., Mcabendroth, L., Bedford, A., Ramsay, P. M., 2006. How wide to cast the net? Cross–taxon congruence of species richness, community similarity and indicator taxa in ponds. Freshwater Biology, 51: 578.
Bouzidi, A., 1989. Recherches hydrobiologiques sur les cours d’eau des massifs du Haut Atlas (Maroc). Bio–écologie des macroinvertébrés et distribution spatiale des peuplements. PhD thesis, Aix–Marseille, France [in French].
Chavanon, G., Berrahou, A., Millán A., 2004. Apport à la connaissance des Coléoptères et Hémiptères aquatiques du Maroc oriental : catalogue faunistique. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, 35: 143–162.
Dakki, M., 1986. Recherches hydrobiologiques sur le haut Sebou (Moyen–Atlas): une contribution à la connaissance faunistique, écologique et historique des eaux courantes subméditerranéennes. PhD thesis, Rabat, Morocco [in French].
Daoudi, L., Chavanon, G., Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., 2017. Contribution to the knowledge of riparian Coleoptera of Ait Aissa wadi region of Beni Tadjite–Talsint (Eastern Morocco). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 8(8): 2903–2915.
Darwall, W., Smith, K., Allen, D., Seddon, M., Mc Gregor Reid, G., Clausnitzer, V., Kalkman, V., 2008. Freshwater biodiversity – a hidden resource under threat. In: The 2008 Review of The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (J.–C. Vie, C. Hilton– Taylor, S. N. Stuart, Eds.). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Fikacek, M., Angus, R., Gentili, E., Jia, F., Minoshima Y. N., Prokin, A., Przewoźny M., Ryndevich, S. K., 2015. Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, revised and updated edition: 37–76 (I. Löbl, D. Löbl D., Eds.). Leiden/Boston.
Jäch, M. A., Balke, M., 2008. Global diversity of water beetles (Coleoptera) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595: 419–442.
Kerr, J. T., Currie, D. J., 1995. Effects of human activity on global extinction risk. Conservation Biology, 9: 1528–1538.
La Greca, M., 1964. Le categorie corologiche degli elementi faunistici Italiani. Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana, 93: 147–165.
– 1975. La caratterizzazione degli elementi faunistici e le categorie corologiche nella ricerca zoogeografica/ Marcello La Greca.
Animalia, Catania, 2: 101–129.
Mabrouki, Y., Taybi, A. F., Bensaad, H., Berrahou, A., 2016a. Variabilité spatio–temporelle de la qualité des eaux courantes de l’Oued Za (Maroc Oriental). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 7(1): 231–243.
Mabrouki, Y., Taybi, A. F., Berrahou, A., 2017a. First record of Ochtephilus (O.) praepositus Mulsant & Rey, 1878 in North Africa. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Section Sciences de la Vie, 39: 51–53.
Mabrouki, Y., Taybi, A. F., Berrahou, A., 2017b. L’évolution spatio–temporelle de la qualité des eaux courantes de l’Oued Melloulou (Maroc). Revue des sciences de l’eau, 30(3): 213–225.
Mabrouki, Y., Taybi, A. F., Berrahou, A., Chaabane, K., Legssyer, B., in press. Case study of the freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmarestii (Millet, 1831) (Crustacea, Decapoda) in the watershed of Moulouya and Eastern Morocco. Vie et Milieu, 68(4).
Mabrouki, Y., Taybi, A. F., Chavanon, G., Vinçon, G., Berrahou, A., 2016b. Contribution à l’étude des plécoptères dans le Maroc Oriental et le bassin versant de la Moulouya et leur distribution en fonction des étages bioclimatiques. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 7(6): 2178–2193.
Mabrouki, Y., Taybi, A. F., El Alami, M., Berrahou, A., 2017c. New and interesting data on distribution and ecology of Mayflies from Eastern Morocco (Ephemeroptera). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 8(8): 2832–2859.
Millán, A., Sanchez–Fernandez, D., Abellan, P., Picazo, F., Carbonell, J. A., Lobo, J. M., Ribera, I., 2014. Atlas de los Coleopteros Acuaticos de Espana Peninsular. MAGRAMA, Madrid.
Purvis, A., Hector, A., 2000. Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature, 405: 212–219.
Rands, M. R. W., Adams, W. M., Bennun, L., Butchart, S. H. M., Clements, A., Coomes, D., Entwistle, A., Hodge, I., Kapos, V., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Sutherland, W. J., Vira, B., 2010. Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond. Science, 329: 1298–1303.
Ricciardi, A., Rasmussen, J. B., 1999. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology, 13: 1220–1222.
Sánchez–Fernández, D., Abellán, P., Mellado, A., Velasco, J., Millán, A., 2006. Are water beetles good indicators of biodiversity in Mediterranean aquatic ecosystems? The case of Segura river basin (SE Spain). Biodiversity and Conservation, 15: 4507–4520.
Sánchez–Fernández, D., Abellán, P., Velasco, J., Millán, A., 2004. Selecting areas to protect the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems in a semiarid Mediterranean región. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 14(5): 465–479.
Taybi, A. F., 2016. Hydrobiological study of the Moulouya: Structure of the biodiversity and longitudinal zonation of benthic invertebrates. PhD thesis, Oujda, Morocco.
Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., Berrahou, A., Ait El Abed, A., 2018a. Bio–ecology of Potamon algeriense (Herbst, 1785) (Crustacea, Decapoda) in the watershed of Moulouya and Oriental Morocco. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 41(2): 267–274.
Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., Berrahou, A., Chaabane, K., 2016a. Évolution spatiotemporelle des paramètres physicochimiques de la Moulouya. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 7(1): 272–284.
Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., Berrahou, A., Peris–Felipo, F. J., Chaabane, K., 2016b. Contribution à l’étude de la relation «plante–hôte–parasite» entre Elodea canadensis Michx., Hydrellia sp. (Diptera) et Ademon decrescens (Nees, 1811) (Hymenoptera, Opiinae) dans le bassin versant de la Moulouya (Maroc). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 7(7): 2445–2452.
Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., Chavanon, G., Berrahou, A., Millán, A., 2017a. New data on aquatic beetles of Morocco (Coleoptera Adephaga: Gyrinidae, Haliplidae and Dytiscidae). Baltic Journal of Coleopterology, 17(1): 83–106.
Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., Chavanon, G. Berrahou, A., Millán A., 2018b. New data on the distribution of aquatic bugs (Hemiptera) from eastern Morocco with notes on their chorology. Zootaxa, 4459(1):139–163.
Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., Ghamizi, M., Berrahou, A., 2017b. The freshwater malacological composition of Moulouya’s watershed and Oriental Morocco. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 8(4): 1401–1416.
Vigna Taglianti, A., Audisio, P. A., Belfiore, C., Biondi, M., Bologna, M. A, Carpaneto, G. M., De Biase, A., De Felici, S., Piattella, E., Racheli, T., Zapparoli, M., Zoia, S., 1992. Riflessioni di gruppo sui corotipi fondamentali della fauna W–Paleartica ed in particolare italiana; Biogeographia, 16: 159–179.
Wallace, J. B., Webster, J. R., 1996. The Role of Macroinvertebrates in Stream Ecosystem Function. Annual Review of Entomology, 41: 115–139.
Yahya, H. S. A., Taybi, A. F., Mabrouki, Y., Fahsi, A., Chafi, A., Chafik, Z., 2017. The Metallic pollution in the groundwater of Triffa Plain (Eastern Morocco). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 8(9): 3372–3381.

Index Volume 16 (2018)

Search