GBIF: Data paper

New data on the dragonfly fauna (Odonata) of the Moulouya River Basin and the Oriental Region, Morocco

Taybi, A. F. Mabrouki, Y. Berrahou, A.,  Sbaa, M.  Brochard, C. 

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32800/amz.2019.17.0085

Key words

Dragonflies, inventory, Eastern Morocco, Ramsar site, Nador lagoon, Monitoring, New records

Reception date: 25/03/2019  |   Acceptation date: 06/06/2019  |   Publication date: 12/07/19

© Copyright belongs to the authors, who license the journal Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica to publish the paper under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, which permits its distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source, the journal Arxius de Miscel·lània Zoològica, are cited.
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New data on the dragonfly fauna (Odonata) of the Moulouya River Basin and the Oriental Region, Morocco

Taybi, A. F. Mabrouki, Y. Berrahou, A.,  Sbaa, M.  Brochard, C. 

Abstract

New data on the dragonfly fauna (Odonata) of the Moulouya River Basin and the Oriental Region, Morocco

We present new faunistic and distributional data on dragonflies (Odonata) from the east of Morocco, comprising the administrative Oriental Region and the Moulouya River Basin and covering an area of 119,268 km2. A checklist of 47 species belonging to 19 genera and seven families is provided. Pseudagrion s. sublacteum (Coenagrionidae), Aeshna mixta (Aeshnidae), Sympetrum sinaiticum and S. meridionale (Libellulidae) are new for Eastern Morocco, while Paragomphus genei (Gomphidae) is new for the Moulouya watershed. Our surveys yield evidence of breeding of Zygonyx torridus in the Moulouya River, of Sympetrum sinaiticum in the Oriental province, and also of Boyeria rene, which remained unrecorded for more than three decades. We confirm the occurrence of Brachythemis impartita in the study area, by providing new sightings. Our results also revealed the range expansion of several other species whereas some previously known species in the region were not found. We found a clear dominance of the Palearctic elements, mainly Mediterranean, with a high proportion of Ibero-Maghrebian endemic species. This chorotype pattern is similar to patterns observed for other macroinvertebrate groups in the same study area.

Data published through GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/dikubb)

Key words: Dragonflies, inventory, Eastern Morocco, Ramsar site, Nador lagoon, Monitoring, New records

Resumen

Nuevos datos sobre la fauna de libélulas (Odonata) de la cuenca del río Moulouya y la región oriental de Marruecos

Se ofrecen nuevos datos faunísticos y de distribución de libélulas (Odonata) en el este de Marruecos, en una zona que comprende la región administrativa Oriental y la cuenca del río Moulouya, con una extensión de 119.268 km2. Se proporciona una lista de 47 especies pertenecientes a 19 géneros y siete familias. Pseudagrion s. sublacteum (Coenagrionidae), Aeshna mixta (Aeshnidae), Sympetrum sinaiticum y S. meridionale (Libellulidae) son nuevos registros en el este de Marruecos, mientras que Paragomphus genei (Gomphidae) es un nuevo registro en la cuenca del Moulouya. Nuestros estudios evidencian la reproducción de Zygonyx torridus en el río Moulouya, de Sympetrum sinaiticum en la provincia Oriental y de Boyeria irene, del que no existían registros desde hace más de tres décadas. Confirmamos asimismo la presencia de Brachythemis impartita en la zona del estudio y ofrecemos datos sobre nuevas observaciones. Los resultados ponen también de manifiesto la expansión del hábitat de varias especies más, si bien otras previamente detectadas en la región no han podido observarse en esta ocasión. Constatamos un claro dominio de elementos paleárticos, principalmente mediterráneos, con una elevada proporción de especies endémicas íbero-magrebíes. Este patrón corotípico es similar a los observados en grupos de macroinvertebrados en la misma zona de estudio.

Datos publicados en GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/dikubb)

Palabras clave: Libélulas, Inventario, Este de Marruecos, Emplazamiento de Ramsar, Laguna de Nador, Observación, Nuevos registros

Resum

Noves dades sobre la fauna de libèl·lules (Odonata) de la conca del riu Moulouya i la regió oriental del Marroc

S’ofereixen noves dades faunístiques i de distribució de libèl·lules (Odonata) a l’est del Marroc, en una zona que comprèn la regió administrativa Oriental i la conca del riu Moulouya, amb una extensió de 119.268 km2. Es proporciona una llista de 47 espècies pertanyents a 19 gèneres i set famílies. Pseudagrion s. sublacteum (Coenagrionidae), Aeshna mixta (Aeshnidae), Sympetrum sinaiticum i S. meridionale (Libellulidae) són nous registres a l’est del Marroc, mentre que Paragomphus genei (Gomphidae) és un nou registre a la conca del Moulouya. Els nostres estudis evidencien la reproducció de Zygonyx torridus al riu Moulouya, de Sympetrum sinaiticum a la província Oriental i de Boyeria irene, del qual no hi havia registres des de fa més de tres dècades. Confirmem així mateix la presència de Brachythemis impartita a la zona de l’estudi i oferim dades sobre noves observacions. Els resultats també posen de manifest l’expansió de l’hàbitat de diverses espècies més, si bé d’altres detectades prèviament a la regió no s’han pogut observar en aquesta ocasió. Constatem un clar domini d’elements paleàrtics, principalment mediterranis, amb una elevada proporció d’espècies endèmiques iberomagribines. Aquest patró corotípic és similar als observats en grups de macroinvertebrats a la mateixa zona d’estudi.

Dades publicades a GBIF (Doi: 10.15470/dikubb )

Paraules clau: Libèl·ules, Inventari, Est del Marroc, Emplaçament de Ramsar, Llacuna de Nador, Observació, Nous registres

Introduction

Our planet currently faces a rush of unprecedented extinctions due to anthropogenic activity, causing an irreversible loss of biological information with unpredictable consequences (Kerr and Currie, 1995; Rands et al., 2010). The extinction of thousands species and the degradation of natural ecosystems is expected in the coming decades (Western, 1992; Barnosky et al., 2011), including aquatic ecosystems. Continental freshwaters harbour a disproportionate amount of the world’s biodiversity (Darwall et al., 2008). In consequence, the loss of biodiversity within inland waters would be much greater than in other ecosystems (Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1999; Dudgeon, 2000; Dudgeon, et al., 2006). Freshwater ecosystems are already degraded through a range of human activities, such as pollution from pesticides, wastewater, agricultural and mine run-off, and physical alteration through channelization and impoundments that impact heavily on hydrology and benthic habitats (Brautigam, 1999).

Several bio-assessment studies on aquatic ecosystems using macroinvertebrates communities in Eastern Morocco recently emerged with the aim of improving knowledge of species occurrence and distribution (Mabrouki et al., 2016a, 2017a, 2018a; Taybi et al., 2016a, 2017a, 2017b, 2018a), which is a prerequisite for biodiversity protection (Millán et al., 2014; Taybi, 2016).

Odonates constitute a privileged taxonomic group for the study and the conservation of aquatic environments thanks to good taxonomic knowledge and their well-known ecological requirements (Dommanget, 1989). Biologists are now considering dragonflies as convenient biological indicators of a healthy environment and recommend preservation of the habitats frequented by these insects (Degabriele, 2013). The dragonfly fauna of the Oriental Region in Morocco and the Moulouya River Basin are relatively well known, thanks to Jacquemin and Boudot, (1999), Boudot and De Knijf (2012) and El Haissoufi et al. (2015). Together, these authors have listed 43 species in the study area.

Despite these publications, knowledge on the occurrence of dragonflies from several rather inaccessible regions is still poor and some ‘blank areas’ persist. To fill this gap, several field surveys were conducted between 2014 and 2018, with 110 localities sampled all along the Moulouya River watershed, including the Anzegmir River (High Atlas slope), the Melloulou River (Middle Atlas slope) and the Za River (High Plateau). Other sampling stations cover the Oriental Region, ranging from Nador and Saidia in the north to Figuig and Bouanane in the south. The main goal of this study was to increase knowledge of the dragonfly fauna of East Morroco, and to identify the chorotypes to which they belong.

Material and methods

Study area

Morocco is currently divided into 12 regions, including the Oriental Region (fig. 1), which occupies almost all the eastern side of the country and covers an area of 88,681 km2 (see Taybi et al., 2017b for details). The Oriental Region includes the wilaya of Oujda (Oujda-Angad prefecture) and the provinces of Berkane, Driouch, Figuig, Guercif, Jerada, Nador and Taourirt. The watershed of the Moulouya (fig. 1), which includes nearly 43,412 km2 of eastern Morocco, covers much of the Oriental Region. With a length of 600 km, the Moulouya is the largest Moroccan river and flows into the Mediterranean. Its main tributaries are the Oueds Ansegmir, Melloulou, Za and Msoun, all permanent. Other tributaries are presently intermittent (3–5 flash floods on average per year) (Bensaad et al., 2017; Mabrouki et al., 2017b).

Fig. 1. Location of the Oriental Region of Morocco and of the Moulouya River Basin with details of the main tributaries. Fig. 1. Localización de la Región Oriental de Marruecos y de la cuenca del río Moulouya con detalles de los principales tributarios.

Sampling

During field surveys conducted from 2014 to 2018 more than 100 localities were investigated in the Moulouya River basin and the Oriental Region (see Appendix 1 for the complete list of localities). Most of these sampling sites were visited at least three times. The samples of benthic fauna (including Odonata larvae) were collected using kick nets and landing nets, exuviae were collected from the riparian and shoreline vegetation using clamps, and adults were caught by entomological hand nets. Samples were identified to species level, placed in labelled tubes with 70 % or 96 % ethanol, and deposited in the collections of aquatic macroinvertebrates at the Laboratory of Water Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Development of the University Mohammed Premier from Oujda (Morocco). Most of the adults were identified in the field and released soon after.

Appendix 1. Sampling sites with indications of locality, geographic coordinates, sampling dates and habitat type: DM, dam; AQ, abandoned quarry; AC, artificial channel; AP, artificial pond; RV, river; LG, lagoon; PD, natural pond; AS, artificial spring; NS, natural spring; GS, green space. Apéndice 1. Puntos de muestreo con indicación de la localidad, coordenadas geográficas, fechas del muestreo y tipo de hábitat: DM, presa; AQ, cantera abandonada; AC, canal artificial; AP, estanque artificial; RV, río; LG, laguna; PD, estanque natural; AS, primavera artificial; NS, manantial natural; GS, espacio verde.

Abbreviations

#, species new for Moulouya River basin; *, species new for the entire area; M, localities at the Moulouya River; S, localities at the Melloulou River; Z, localities at the Za river; N, localities in Nador province; O, localities in the Oujda province; F, localities in the Figuig province; IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Results

Thirty-nine species, belonging to 19 genera and seven families, were recorded during this study, so that the checklist of species ever found in the studied region is 47 (GBIF dataset: Doi: 10.15470/dikubb).

Family Calopterygidae

Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis (Vander Linden, 1825)
Material examined: M3, 03-V-14 (2 males, 1 female); M7, 02-V-14 (1 male); M20, 23-VI-14 (1 female); M21, 23-VI-14 (1 male); M22, 23-VI-14 (1 female); S1, 27-III-14 (1 male); S4, 22-III-14 (2 females); O1, 27-IV-16 (2 males); O3, 28-IV-16 (2la); O4, 28-IV-16 (1 male, 2 larvae); O5, 30-VI-18 (2 males); O12, 01-II-15 (3 males, 4 females); O13, 01-II-15 (2 males); O20, 18-XI-15 (1 female); O21, 31-V-17 (3 females); N3, 02-V-16 (5 males, 6 females, 1 larva); N4, 30-IV-16 (> 10 males, > 10 females); N15, 13-VIII-18 (10 males, 12 females); N25, 13-VIII-18 (3 males, 2 females).
Distribution: West Mediterranean species with Atlantic extension. In Morocco, it is described as very common and widespread in the northern part of the country, including the area studied (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 2 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Fig. 2. Distribution of the known records of Calopterygidae, Lestidae and Platycnemididae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 2. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Calopterygidae, Lestidae y Platycnemididae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

Family Lestidae

Lestes barbarus (Fabricius, 1798)
Material examined: M2, 03-V-14 (3 larvae); M19, 22-VI-14 (1 male); Z3, 19-III-14 (1 male).
Distribution: Holo-Mediterranean species with oriental extension. In Morocco, it is known from the northern part of the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In the Moulouya watershed, it has been reported around Tafrante spring (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). During the sampling period, L. barbarus was found in the upper Moulouya and Za, and near the Sebra River (fig. 2).

Chalcolestes viridis (Vander Linden, 1825)
Material examined: M4, 03-V-14 (1 male, 3larvae); M5, 02-V-14 (2 males, 1 female); S8, 08-VI-14 (1 male); S9, 15-VIII-14 (1 female); O1, 27-IV-16 (2 males, 1 female); O9, 19-IX-15 (1 male); O12, 01-II-15 (2 females); O22, 31-V-17 (3 males, 1 female); N14, 28-VIII-18 (1 male); N15, 13-VIII-18 (1 male, 2 females); N30, 03-IX-18 (3 males, 4 females).
Distribution: West-Palearctic species. In Morocco, it is considered common in the northern part of the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In the Moulouya watershed, the species seems to be confined to the Beni Snassen Mountains and is known only from the Zegzel valley (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 2 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Sympecma fusca (Vander Linden, 1820)
Material examined: M1, 03-V-14 (2 larvae); M3, 03-V-14 (3 larvae).
Distribution: Western Palearctic species distributed in Morocco in the northern part of the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In the Moulouya watershed, it was recently reported at Anzegmir (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012) and this distribution is confirmed here by our records from the Upper Moulouya (fig. 2).

Family Coenagrionidae

Ceriagrion tenellum (Villers, 1789)
Material examined: M3, 03-V-14 (3 larvae); M5, 02-V-14 (2 males, 2 larvae); M9, 14-VI-14 (1 male); M11, 14-VI-14 (1 male); M20, 23-VI-14 (3 males, 1 female); M21, 23-VI-14 (1 male); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (3 males, 4 females); O5, 30-VI-18 (2 females); O17, 27-VII-16 (1 male); N4, 17-VIII-18 (> 10 males, > 10 females); N5, 10-VIII-18 (1 male); N14, 28-VIII-18 (1 male); N15, 13-VIII-18 (6 males, 6 females); N25, 13-VIII-18 (3 males); N27, 19-VIII-18 (2 females); N30, 03-IX-18 (5 males).
Distribution: Western Mediterranean. The species seems to be confined to northern Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In the Moulouya watershed it has already been reported in the watersheds of the Zegzel, Anzegmir and Boulojoul rivers (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). The species is found throughout the studied area (fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Distribution of the known records of Coenagrionidae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 3. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Coenagrionidae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

Coenagrion caerulescens (Fonscolombe, 1838)
Material examined: M1, 03-V-14 (3 larvae); M2, 03-V-14 (4 larvae); M4, 03-V-14 (1 male); M5, 02-V-14 (3 males); M19, 22-VI-14 (2 males, 2 females); M10, 14-VI-14 (1 male, 2 females, 2 larvae); Z3, 19-III-14 (2 males, 3 females, 2 larvae); Z8, 17-V-14 (2 females); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (4 males, 6 females, 3 larvae); Z10, 19-VII-14 (3 males); O1, 27-IV-16 (3 males, 3 females); O12, 01-II-15 (1 male); O15, 06-VI-16 (4 males, 3 females); O16, 17-VII-16 (>20 males, >20 females); O17, 27-VII-16 (1 female); O20, 29-V-17 (2 males, 3 females); O22, 31-V-17 (6 males, 7 females); O25, 20-III-18 (6 males, 5 females); N3, 02-V-16 (4 males, 5 females); N4, 17-VIII-18 (10 males, 12 females); N14, 28-VIII-18 (4 males, 3 females); N15, 13-VIII-18 (5 males, 2 females); N20, 04-X-17 (2 males); N23, 07-X-17 (1 male); N25, 13-VIII-18 (4 males, 3 females); N30, 03-IX-18 (3 males, 6 females).
Distribution: West Mediterranean species and the most abundant and most widespread Coenagrion in Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999), including the area studied (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 3 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Enallagma deserti (Selys, 1871)
Material examined: M2, 03-V-14 (1 female); M5, 02-V-14 (1 male); O2, 27-IV-16 (1 female); O10, 18-XI-15 (2 males, 1 female); O16, 17-VII-16 (2 males, 3 females); N3, 02-V-16 (1 male); N30, 03-IX-18 (3 males, 1 female).
Distribution: Maghrebian endemic species widely distributed in northern Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In the studied area, the species was recorded from the upper Moulouya and Za rivers (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012) and now in the eastern Middle Atlas, in the vicinity of Debdou Oujda, and finally at Nador Mount (fig. 3).

Erythromma lindenii (Selys, 1840)
Material examined: M4, 03-V-14 (5 larvae); M5, 02-V-14 (6 larvae); Z1, 19-III-14 (1 male, 2 larvae); Z2, 19-III-14 (1 male, 3 females, 3larvae); Z4, 19-III-14 (1 male); Z5, 17-V-14 (1 male, 6 females); Z7, 17-V-14 (4 males, 5 females); Z8, 17-V-14 (3 males, 4 females); Z12, 19-VII-14 (3 males, 2 females); O4, 28-IV-16 (2 females); O5, 30-VI-18 (2 males); O7, 14-IV-18 (2 males, 1 female); O9, 19-IX-15 (3 males, 4 females); O11, 18-XI-15 (1 male); O16, 17-VII-16 (4 males, 5 females); O19, 20-VII-17 (1 male); O21, 31-V-17 (3 males, 4 females); N4, 17-VIII-18 (7 males, 3 females); N14, 28-VIII-18 (2 females); N27, 19-VIII-16 (1 male, 2 females).
Distribution: Holo-Mediterranean species, widely distributed and very common throughout Morocco, including the study area (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 3 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Pseudagrion s. sublacteum (Karsch, 1893)*
Material examined: N27, 19-VIII-16 (1 male, 1 female).
Distribution: the only Moroccan currently known species of the large genus Pseudagrion.
Pseudagrion sublacteum is an Ethiopian species showing isolates in Morocco and (under P. s. mortoni Schmidt in Ris, 1936) the Levant, which are remnants of an ancient continuous range dating from past pluvial periods, subsequently fragmented by the aridification of the Sahara during the second half of the Holocene (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot et al., 2009). Until now it was known only more to the west in the Fez-Meknes, Rabat-Salé_Kenitra, Beni-Mella-Khénifra and Marrakech-Safi Regions (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot et al., 2009) and so it is new for the Oriental Region at a small tributary of the Selouane River near La’azib (fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Distribution of the known records of Coenagrionidae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 4. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Coenagrionidae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

Ischnura graellsii (Rambur, 1842)
Material examined: M19, 22-VI-14 (3 males, 4 females, 6 larvae); M20, 23-VI-14 (1 male, 3 females, 2 larvae); M21, 23-VI-14 (2 males, 4 females); M22, 23-VI-14 (1 male); Z12, 19-VII-14 (4 males, 6 females); O3, 28-IV-16 (2 males, 1 female); O4, 28-IV-16 (3 males); O5, 30-VI-18 (3 females); O8, 22-II-16 (2 males); O14, 06-VI-16 (1 male); O16, 17-VII-16 (10 males, 13 females); O17, 27-VII-16 (3 males); N1, 17-VIII-18 (1 male, 1 female); N2, 01-V-16 (3 larvae); N3, 02-V-16 (7 males, 3 females); N4, 17-VIII-18 (> 10 males, > 10 females); N11, 31-VIII-18 (3 males, 1 female); N14, 28-VIII-18 (3 males, 3 females); N15, 13-VIII-18 (>10 males, >10 females); N23, 07-X-17 (2 females); N24, 08-X-17 (1 male); N30, 03-IX-18 (4 males, 4 females).
Distribution: strict West Mediterranean species, limited to the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb. In Morocco, it is extremely common throughout the North and West of the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999. The species is thus ubiquitous throughout the Moulouya basin, where it is well established from the estuary and coastal marshes to the eastern High Atlas (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 4 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Ischnura saharensis Aguesse, 1958
Material examined: M4, 03-V-14 (1 male); M11, 14-VI-14 (2 males); M14, 14-VI-14 (2 males, 1 female); M18, 22-VI-14 (3 females); Z2, 19-III-14 (2 males, 1 female, 5 larvae); Z3, 19-III-14 (4 larvae); Z4, 19-III-14 (5 larvae); Z7, 17-V-14 (1 male); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (> 20 males, > 20 females, 10 larvae); Z10, 19-VII-14 (3 males, 4 females); S8, 08-VI-14 (2 males, 1 female); S9, 15-VIII-14 (1 female); S10, 15-VIII-14 (2 females); S11, 15-VIII-14 (2 males); O2, 27-IV-16 (3 males, 4 females); O11, 18-XI-15 (3 females); O14, 06-VI-16 (1 female); O16, 17-VII-16 (> 20 males, > 20 females); O17, 27-VII-16 (2 males); O20, 29-V-17 (1 male, 3 females); O25, 20-III-18 (13 males, 12 females); F9, 22-XI-16 (7 males, 6 females).
Distribution: this Ischnura is a Saharan and Sub-Saharan endemic which reaches eastern Libya, Niger and northern Chad (Dumont, 2014; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). It is widespread and common throughout Morocco, including the Oriental Region and the Moulouya River basin (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 4 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Family Platycnemididae

Platycnemis subdilatata (Selys, 1849)
Material examined: M2, 03-V-14 (7 larvae); M4, 03-V-14 (6 larvae); M19, 22-VI-14 (1 male, 3 larvae); Z1, 19-III-14 (8 larvae); Z3, 19-III-14 (2 larvae); Z6, 17-V-14 (2 females); Z8, 17-V-14 (1 male, 3 females); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (2 males); Z10, 19-VII-14 (1 female); S9, 15-VIII-14 (1 male); S10, 15-VIII-14 (2 females); S11, 15-VIII-14 (1 male, 2 females); O4, 28-IV-16 (1 female); O7, 14-IV-18 (2 males, 1 female; O10, 18-XI-15 (2 males); O25, 20-III-18 (3 males, 2 females); N3, 02-V-16 (2 males); N11, 31-VIII-18 (1 female); N23, 07-X-17 (1 male, 3 females); F9, 22-XI-16 (1 male).
Distribution: Maghrebian endemic widely distributed from northern Morocco to northern Tunisia (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). It is common throughout Morocco, including the Oriental Region and the Moulouya River basin (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 2 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied

Family Aeshnidae

Aeshna mixta Latreille, 1805 *
Material examined: S2, 23-III-14 (1 female, 3 larvae).
Distribution: Euro-Siberian species well established in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, it has been reported from the Middle Atlas, the Coastal Meseta, the Central Plateau and the Rif (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; El Haissoufi et al., 2015). Aeshna mixta is new for the Moulouya basin and the whole Eastern Morocco, where it was found in the upper Melloulou River in the easternmost part of the Middle Atlas (fig. 5).

Fig. 5. Distribution of the known records of the Aeshnidae and Cordulegastridae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 5. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Aeshnidae y Cordulegastridae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

Anax imperator Leach, 1815
Material examined: M1, 03-V-14 (1 male, 1 larvae); M3, 03-V-14 (1 exuvia); M5, 02-V-14 (1 male); M15, 24-V-14 (1 female); M19, 22-VI-14 (1 larva); M21, 23-VI-14 (1 male); Z1, 19-III-14 (1 larva); Z5, 17-V-14 (1 male); Z7, 17-V-14 (1 exuvia); Z10, 19-VII-14 (1 female); S8, 08-VI-14 (1 male); S10, 15-VIII-14 (1 females, 1 larva); O15, 06-VI-16 (2 males, 1 female); N15, 13-VIII-18 (1 male, 1 female).
Distribution: Afro-European species. In Morocco, it is considered one of the most common and frequent Anisoptera in the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999), and this applies also to the Moulouya watershed and the Oriental Region (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 5 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Anax parthenope Selys, 1839
Material examined: M4, 03-V-14 (1 female, 1 exuvia); M12, 14-VI-14 (2 females); M16, 24-V-14 (1 male, 1 female, 1 larva); Z2, 19-III-14 (1 male, 1 female); Z3, 19-III-14 (2 males); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (3 males, 3 females, 3 larvae, 1 exuvia); O5, 30-VI-18 (1 male); O16, 17-VII-16 (2 males, 2 females, 1 exuvia); N1, 17-VIII-18 (5 males, 6 females); N4, 17-VIII-18 (2 males, 1 female); N14, 28-VIII-18 (2 males); N20, 04-X-17 (1 female); N30, 03-IX-18 (1 male).
Distribution: Palearctic species reaching eastern Asia. Anax parthenope is widespread throughout Morocco, including the area studied here (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 5 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied

Boyeria irene (Fonscolombe, 1838)
Material examined: S1, 27-III-14 (2 larvae); S4, 22-III-14 (1 larva).
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco, B. irene is known from the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas, the Anti-Atlas and the Rif (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). In the Moulouya basin, although B. irene was detected previously in the Kiss River between Boumia and Kerrouchen by Jacquemin and Boudot (1999), no imago has since been found in the region. However, the larvae of this large species, which are easy to identify in the field, were found in the upper Melloulou River Basin, in small spring brooks flowing into the main stream (Oued El Bared and Berkine rivers), in the easternmost Middle Atlas (fig. 5).

Hemianax ephippiger (Burmeister, 1839)
Material examined: O2, 27-IV-16 (1 male); O7, 14-IV-18 (1 male); O16, 17-VII-16 (1 male); O25, 20-III-18 (1 female); N25, 13-VIII-18 (1 male, 1 female); N29, 01-IX-18 (1 male).
Distribution: this species is found throughout intertropical Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Basin and its annual long distance migrations allowed it to sporadically reach Iceland, South America, the Caribbean (Lambret and Boudot, 2013), Thailand and Japan. It is widely distributed throughout Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999) although most previous records came from the Atlantic coast and from the southern foothills of the Atlas, where the species spends a part of the winter on the wings on the northern fringe of the Sahara, waiting for higher temperatures to cross the mountains to the north. The first record of an autochthonous population from the Moulouya watershed is recent, with two freshly emerged males and numerous exuviae found at the Mechra Hammadi and Mohammed V dam lakes (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). During our study, H. ephippiger was found near Debdou, Oujda and in the brackish wetlands surrounding Saidia, Nador Lagoon and even on its dune cord (fig. 5).

Family Gomphidae

Gomphus simillimus maroccanus Lieftinck, 1966
Material examined: M11, 14-VI-14 (3 larvae); M14, 14-VI-14 (2 larvae); M21, 23-VI-14 (1 female); Z3, 19-III-14 (4 larvae); O1, 27-IV-16 (1 female); O9, 19-IX-15 (1 male, 1 larva); N15, 13-VIII-18 (1 female); N23, 07-X-17 (2 larvae).
Distribution: Maghrebian endemic. G. simillimus maroccanus is widespread in the northern part of Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999), including the area studied (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). In full agreement with this general distribution, we recorded it for the first time in the catchment area of the Nador lagoon and Msoun rivers (fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Distribution of the known records of the Gomphidae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 6. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Gomphidae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

Onychogomphus costae Selys, 1885
Material examined: M7, 02-V-14 (3 larvae); M10, 14-VI-14 (1 larva); M13, 14-VI-14 (1 larva); M17, 07-VII-14 (2 larvae); M20, 23-VI-14 (1 female); Z4, 19-III-14 (2 females); Z6, 17-V-14 (1 male); S8, 08-VI-14 (6 larvae); S9, 15-VIII-14 (3 larvae); O22, 31-V-17 (1 female, 1 larva).
Distribution. Ibero-Maghrebian species. In Morocco, O. costae is well scattered throughout the northern part of the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). It is widely distributed in the Moulouya watershed and in the Oriental Region (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Findings from this study greatly increase its range in the Oriental Region and the catchment area of the Moulouya (fig. 6).

Onychogomphus forcipatus unguiculatus (Vander Linden, 1820)
Material examined: M10, 14-VI-14 (1 female, 2 larvae); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (1 male); S1, 27-III-14 (1 male, 3 females, 3 larvae, 1 exuvia); S2, 23-III-14 (1 female, 2 larvae, 3 exuviae); S3, 23-III-14 (1 female, 3 larvae); S4, 22-III-14 (4 larvae); S5, 15-VI-14 (1 female, 1 larva); S6, 08-VI-14 (1 male); S7, 08-VI-14 (2 larvae); N23, 07-X-17 (1 female).
Distribution: West-Mediterranean endemic. This species is widely distributed in northern Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In the area studied, it was reported in the east of the Middle Atlas, and the Za, Isly and Zegzel rivers (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999, Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). We found it very abundant in the Oriental Region and in the Moulouya basin, especially in the upper Melloulou River catchment (fig. 6).

Onychogomphus uncatus (Charpentier, 1840)
Material examined: M5, 02-V-14 (1 female); M8, 02-V-14 (1 male); S2, 23-III-14 (1 male, 1 larva); S3, 23-III-14 (1 male).
Distribution: West Mediterranean species. In Morocco, this species is mainly mountainous (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999) as it favours swift waters. In the area studied, O. uncatus was previously reported at Outat El Haj and in the east of the Middle Atlas (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). We found it in the upper Moulouya and Melloulou rivers (fig. 6).

Paragomphus genei (Selys, 1841) #

Material examined: M19, 22-VI-14 (1 male); Z3, 19-III-14 (1 larva); N1, 17-VIII-18 (2 males); F5, 22-V-16 (3 larave).
Distribution: Afrotropical species scattered in northern Morocco only (Boudot et al., 2009; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). The record of P. genei from the Oriental Region is very recent, reported in the easternmost part of the Rif (El Haissoufi et al., 2015) and in the very south close to the Algerian border near Bouanane (Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). We found it as a new species for the Moulouya watershed, with larvae found at the Abbou Lekhal (Figuig area) and Lakhrouf rivers (Za watershed), while two males were found near the Sebra river and near Nador within the Eastern Rif (fig. 6).

Family Cordulegastridae

Cordulegaster boltonii algirica Morton, 1916
Material examined: M4, 03-V-14 (1 male); M7, 02-V-14 (1 male); S2, 23-III-14 (1 female); S4, 22-III-14 (1 male); S6, 08-VI-14 (1 male).
Distribution: Maghrebian endemism. In Morocco, most of the populations known to date on this lotic species belonged to the central-western Rif and the eastern Middle Atlas with the easternmost localities recently reported from Debdou surroundings on the northern escarpment of the Rekkam Plateau (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). We found it associated with mountainous areas in the upper Anzegmir and Melloulou basins and in the upper Moulouya (fig. 5).

Family Libellulidae

Brachythemis impartita (Karsch, 1890)
Material examined: M18, 22-VI-14 (1 male); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (1 male); N15, 13-VIII-18 (2 males, 1 female).
Distribution: Afrotropical species with South-European extension species. The main range of B. impartita covers a large part of sub-Saharan Africa north of the Congo Democratic Republic. The species shows a second range north of the Sahara in the Mediterranean, namely in the Maghreb, Spain, Portugal, Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and in the Levant. Both ranges are connected by the Nile valley, where the species is well established. Its close relative, B. leucosticte, occurs in most of the southern half of Africa and Madagascar (Dijkstra and Matushkina, 2009) and both species overlap in the middle part of the African continent. The occurrence of B. impartita in Eastern Morocco from the lower Moulouya basin at the Mechra Hammadi dam lake and ex-Hassan II reservoir on Oued Za to the Algerian border at a small dam lake on the Douis River in the Oued Zelmou basin near Bouanane (SW Figuig province) (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012) was confirmed by our new records at the Arabat or Ouled Settout dam near Nador (fig. 9).

Crocothemis erythraea (Brullé, 1832)
Material examined: M4, 03-V-14 (1 male, 1 exuvia); M5, 02-V-14 (2 males, 1 female, 1 larva); M17, 07-VII-14 (2 males); M19, 22-VI-14 (1 female, 2 larvae); M21, 23-VI-14 (2 males); Z1, 19-III-14 (1 male, 1 female, 2 larvae); Z3, 19-III-14 (2 larvae); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (3 males, 2 females); S7, 08-VI-14 (1 male); S9, 15-VIII-14 (2 females); S10, 15-VIII-14 (1 male); O9, 19-IX-15 (2 males, 1 female); O16, 17-VII-16 (5 males, 3 females); O18, 27-VIII-16 (3 males, 4 females); O21, 31-V-17 (1 male); O24, 02-VI-16 (1 male); O25, 20-III-18 (3 males, 3 females); N1, 17-VIII-18 (4 males, 3 females); N5, 10-VIII-18 (1 male); N12, 12-V-16 (1 male); N15, 13-VIII-18 (1 male, 2 females); N30, 03-IX-18 (2 females); F5, 22-V-16 (1 male); F9, 22-XI-16 (2 females).
Distribution: primarily an Afrotropical species which secondarily invaded Western Europe and central and south-western Asia (Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). Crocothemis erythraea is widespread and common in Morocco, including the Moulouya watershed and the Oriental Region (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot et al., 2009; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Figure 9 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Orthetrum brunneum (Fonscolombe, 1837)
Material examined: O17, 27-VII-16 (1 male); O22, 31-V-17 (2 males, 1 female); N4, 17-VIII-18 (2 males, 3 females); N5, 10-VIII-18 (1 male); N12, 12-V-16 (1 male); N19, 17-VI-17 (1 male).
Distribution: Eurasian species ranging from the Atlantic to north-western China. Orthetrum brunneum remains scattered in Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). In eastern Morocco, the species has been reported from the upper and lower Moulouya as well as in the Za and Isly rivers (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). We found it at Arghbal and Wertass springs, in addition to the watershed of Nador lagoon and its surrounding (fig. 7).

Fig. 7. Distribution of the known records of Libellulidae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 7. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Libellulidae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

 

Orthetrum cancellatum (Linnaeus, 1758)
Material examined: M1, 03-V-14 (1 female); M4, 03-V-14 (1 male, 1 female); M17, 07-VII-14 (1 female); M20, 23-VI-14 (1 male); M22, 23-VI-14 (1 male); Z6, 17-V-14 (1 female); Z10, 19-VII-14 (1 male, 1 female); N15, 13-VIII-18 (1 male, 3 females); N24, 08-X-17 (1 male); N25, 13-VIII-18 (1 female).
Distribution: this Orthetrum has a Palearctic distribution. In Morocco, it is widespread in the r northern part of the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In eastern Morocco, it was recorded from the upper and lower Moulouya and from the Za River watershed (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012), which is confirmed here. We also found it in the Nador province. Figure 7 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Orthetrum chrysostigma (Burmeister, 1839)
Material examined: M5, 02-V-14 (1 male, 1 female); M11, 14-VI-14 (1 female); M13, 14-VI-14 (2 males); M15, 24-V-14 (1 male); M17, 07-VII-14 (2 females); M18, 22-VI-14 (1 male); Z3, 19-III-14 (2 males, 2 females); Z5, 17-V-14 (2 males); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (4 males, 3 females); Z11, 19-VII-14 (1 male); Z12, 19-VII-14 (3 males, 1 female); O4, 28-IV-16 (3 males, 3 females); O5, 30-VI-18 (2 males); O9, 19-IX-15 (1 female); O16, 17-VII-16 (2 males, 1 female); O17, 27-VII-16 (1 male); O21, 31-V-17 (2 males, 1 female); O22, 31-V-17 (2 males, 2 females); O23, 31-V-17 (1 female); O24, 02-VI-16 (1 male); N1, 17-VIII-18 (2 females); N6, 02-V-16 (4 males, 2 females); N10, 07-II-15 (1 male, 1 female); N12, 12-V-16 (1 male); N14, 28-VIII-18 (1 female); N15, 13-VIII-18 (3 males, 4 females); N19, 17-VI-17 (1 male); N23, 07-X-17 (1 male, 1 female); N25, 13-VIII-18 (2 males); N27, 19-VIII-18 (2 males); N30, 03-IX-18 (3 males); F5, 22-V-16 (2 males); F8, 21-XI-16 (1 male); F9, 22-XI-16 (1 female).
Distribution: an Afrotropical species distributed throughout most of the African continent, southern Europe and southwestern Asia (Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). It is the most common
Orthetrum in Morocco and is well established in the north of the Oriental Region (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999), which is confirmed by our present records whereas our findings in the Figuig surroundings show it extends south of the region as expected (fig. 7).

Orthetrum coerulescens anceps (Schneider, 1845)
Material examined: M2, 03-V-14 (1 male); M3, 03-V-14 (1 female); M12, 14-VI-14 (1 male); M17, 07-VII-14 (2 females); Z1, 19-III-14 (1 male); Z3, 19-III-14 (1 female); Z7, 17-V-14 (1 male); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (2 males); O1, 27-IV-16 (1 male); O5, 30-VI-18 (1 male, 1 female); O25, 20-III-18 (1 male); N15, 13-VIII-18 (3 males); N23, 07-X-17 (1 female).
Distribution: a so-called ‘Oriental’ subspecies ranging from Central Asia and Pakistan to parts of the Mediterranean and to the western Maghreb. It overlaps and hybridizes with the nominotypical subspecies in part of the Mediterranean and the Balkans. It is common and widely distributed in northern Morocco, including the north of the Eastern Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot et al., 2009; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015), which is confirmed by our present records. Figure 7 shows the present and previously published records of this species in the area studied.

Orthetrum nitidinerve (Selys, 1841)
Material examined: O9, 19-IX-15 (1 female); O25, 20-III-18 (1 male); N10, 07-II-15 (1 female); N24, 08-X-17 (1 male); N30, 03-IX-18 (2 males, 1 female).
Distribution: an Ibero-Maghrebian species with a wide distribution in northern Morocco, including the Moulouya watershed and the Oriental Region (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot et al., 2009; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015), confirmed by our present records (fig. 7)

Orthetrum trinacria (Selys, 1841)
Material examined: O5, 30-VI-18 (1 male); N6, 02-V-16 (1 male); N15, 13-VIII-18 (3 males, 1 female); N25, 13-VIII-18 (1 male); N27, 19-VIII-16 (1 male).
Distribution: Afrotropical species. Not very common in Morocco that is mostly present in the northern part of the country, although it avoids the mountains (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999). In eastern Morocco, it was reported from the lower Moulouya and reaches the Algerian border at the Figuig oasis in the south of the Oriental Region (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). Our present data show that it also occurs in the catchment area of the Nador Lagoon (fig. 7).

Selysiothemis nigra (Vander Linden, 1825)
Material examined: O7, 14-IV-18 (1 male); F3, 21-V-16 (1 male).
Distribution: this Mesasiatic species known for its migratory temperament ranges from Central and south-western Asia to Spain and Morocco through the Balkans and throughout Italy. Its overall range seems to remain rather constant although records and breeding localities are regularly increasing due the creation of new habitats by humans (irrigation reservoirs, rehabilitation of abandoned industrial sites, etc) (Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). In Morocco, it was discovered for the first time on the northern edge of the Sahara, at the Merzouga lake (Boudot, 2008), then seen at other places within the same climatic zone (Juillerat and Monnerat, 2009; Boudot et al., 2009) and most recently in the Oriental Region (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012) including the northern Mediterranean coast (Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). In eastern Morocco, it is known only from the Mechra Hammadi dam lake and environs, at the Figuig oasis and ca. 40 km southwest of Nador/Mellila (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). Our records (fig. 8) show that its presence is increasing progressively in Morocco like in most other Mediterranean countries.

Fig. 8. Distribution of the known records of Libellulidae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 8. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Libellulidae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

Sympetrum fonscolombii (Selys, 1840)
Material examined: M1, 03-V-14 (3 larvae); M3, 03-V-14 (3 larvae); M5, 02-V-14 (4 larvae); M11, 14-VI-14 (1 male, 3 larvae); M14, 14-VI-14 (1 male, 1 female); M16, 24-V-14 (1 male); M18, 22-VI-14 (1 male, 2 females); M21, 23-VI-14 (2 males, 1 female); Z2, 19-III-14 (2 males); Z4, 19-III-14 (3 larvae); Z6, 17-V-14 (1 female, 2 larvae); Z8, 17-V-14 (2 larvae); S9, 15-VIII-14 (1 male); S11, 15-VIII-14 (1 male); O2, 27-IV-16 (1 larvae); O5, 30-VI-18 (1 male); O13, 01-II-15 (1 male); O16, 17-VII-16 (2 males, 2 females); O19, 20-VII-17 (1 male); O22, 31-V-17 (1 female, 1 larvae); O25, 20-III-18 (3 larvae); O26, 25-VIII-18 (1 male); N1, 17-VIII-18 (2 males, 2 larvae); N3, 02-V-16 (1 male, 1 female); N6, 02-V-16 (2 males); N10, 07-II-15 (2 males); N11, 31-VIII-18 (1 male); N13, 12-V-16 (1 male, 1 female); N16, 29-IX-16 (2 larvae); N28, 28-VIII-18 (1 male); N29, 01-IX-18 (1 male); F1, 21-V-16 (1 female); F3, 21-V-16 (1 male); F4, 22-V-16 (1 larvae).
Distribution: an Afro-European species showing a strong migratory behaviour, which brought many records from Japan. It is one of the most common and abundant Anisoptera throughout Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015), and is confirmed here as the most abundant Sympetrum species in the Moulouya watershed and the Oriental Region (fig. 8).

Sympetrum meridionale (Selys, 1841) *
Material examined: O1, 27-IV-16 (1 male); N14, 28-VIII-18 (2 males, 1 female).
Distribution: a Mediterranean and Central Asian species ranging from the Atlantic to Mongolia. It is rather uncommon in Morocco, with only a few recent records (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999;
Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). Until now, this species was mostly known from the northwest of the country and is new here for the Oriental Region and the Moulouya river basin with findings at Debdou and in the Mariouari River (fig. 8).

Sympetrum sinaiticum Dumont, 1977 *
Material examined: F2, 21-V-16 (11 larvae); F3, 21-V-16 (4 larvae).
Distribution: a West-Palearcic species ranging from the Levant to southern Algeria, western Morocco and eastern and southern Spain (Juillerat and Monnerat, 2009; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). In Morocco, it is known from a small number of localities in the south within the northern fringe of the Sahara. This rare and elusive species, which breeds mostly in autumn and winter, is new here for the Oriental Region with its discovery at the two dams Zriga and Sfissef (fig. 8), in the very south (Figuig vicinity).

Sympetrum striolatum (Charpentier, 1840)
Material examined: M10, 14-VI-14 (1 male, 2 larvae); O9, 19-IX-15 (1 female); O16, 17-VII-16 (2 males); O22, 31-V-17 (2 larvae); N3, 02-V-16 (1 male); N6, 02-V-16 (1 female, 1 larvae); N10, 07-II-15 (1 male); N11, 31-VIII-18 (1 male, 1 female); N15, 13-VIII-18 (1 male).
Distribution: a Palearctic species ranging from the Atlantic to Japan. In Morocco, it is mostly known from the northern part of the country (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). In the studied area, it was previously known from only the Ansegmir River and the mouth of the Moulouya River and the north of the Oriental Region (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012) which is confirmed here (fig. 8).

Trithemis annulata (Palisot de Beauvois, 1807)
Material examined: M4, 03-V-14 (1 larva, 3exuvia); M5, 02-V-14 (1 male); M12, 14-VI-14 (1 male, 2 females); M19, 22-VI-14 (1 female); M21, 23-VI-14 (2 males, 1 female); M22, 23-VI-14 (1 male); Z4, 19-III-14 (3 larvae); Z9, 07-VIII-14 (1 male, 2 females, 2 larvae); O2, 27-IV-16 (1 male);O8, 22-II-16 (3 males); O18, 27-VIII-16 (1 female); N4, 17-VIII-18 (5 males, 3 females, 2 larvae); N5, 10-VIII-18 (1 male); N6, 02-V-16 (2 males); N8, 02-V-16 (1 female); N12, 12-V-16 (1 female); N13, 12-V-16 (1 larva); N14, 28-VIII-18 (1 male); N23, 07-X-17 (1 male); N25, 13-VIII-18 (2 males, 3 females); F2, 21-V-16 (1 male,); F7, 20-XI-16 (1 female).
Distribution: a wide ranging Afro-tropical species covering the whole of Africa and of the Arabian Peninsula which expanded north to southern Europe in the last 40 years. It shows a wide distribution throughout northern Morocco, including the Oriental Region and the Moulouya watershed (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015), confirmed here by our numerous records in the north and in the south (fig. 9).

Fig. 9. Distribution of the known records of Libellulidae species in the study area (present and previously published information). Fig. 9. Distribución de los registros conocidos de especies de Libellulidae en el área de estudio (información actual y publicada anteriormente).

Trithemis kirbyi (Selys, 1891)
Material examined: M6, 02-V-14 (1 male); M18, 22-VI-14 (1 female); M20, 23-VI-14 (1 male); Z4, 19-III-14 (2 larvae, 1 exuvia); Z5, 17-V-14 (1 male); Z10, 19-VII-14 (1 male, 1 female); S10, 15-VIII-14 (1 female); O6, 23-IV-16 (3 males, 4 females); O7, 14-IV-18 (3 males); O8, 22-II-16 (2 males); O18, 27-VIII-16 (1 female); O23, 31-V-17 (1 female); O25, 20-III-18 (1 male, 2 larvae, 1 exuvia); N1, 17-VIII-18 (1 female); N2, 01-V-16 (1 male); N4, 17-VIII-18 (1 male, 2 females); N5, 10-VIII-18 (1 male, 1 female); N6, 02-V-16 (2 males); N11, 31-VIII-18 (1 male); N14, 28-VIII-18 (1 male, 1 female); N15, 13-VIII-18 (2 males, 3 females, 1 larvae); N17, 29-IX-16 (2 exuviae); F3, 21-V-16 (1 male); F4, 22-V-16 (1 larva, 2 exuviae); F7, 20-XI-16 (2 males); F8, 21-XI-16 (1 male, 1 female).
Distribution: an African species expanding East through the south of the Arabian Peninsula and Iran to western India and Pakistan. Trithemis kirbyi expanded north recently, colonizing most of the Iberian Peninsula and reaching France in the last 12 years taking advantage of the strongest heat waves linked to climate warming and to its ability to disperse and to breed opportunistically in any kind of water habitat (Polette et al., 2017). It is widespread in the watershed of Moulouya and Morocco in general (Boudot et al., 2009 ; Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015), as confirmed by our present data (fig. 9).

Zygonyx torridus (Kirby, 1889)
Material examined: M19, 22-VI-14 (1 male, 1 larvae); M20, 23-VI-14 (3 larvae, 1 exuvia); O21, 31-V-17 (1 male); N20, 04-X-17 (1 female); N25, 13-VIII-18 (1 male).
Distribution: an Afrotropical species which reaches India and has a relict disjunct Mediterranean sub-range covering Morocco, the Canary Islands, mainland Spain, southern Portugal, Sicily and the Levant (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999; Kunz et al., 2006; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). In Morocco, the species seems to be scattered and very local, and in the East it has been found until now only from the lower Moulouya (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012; Boudot and Kalkman, 2015), which is confirmed here by our five records, all pertaining to the lower area of the Moulouya watershed (fig. 9).

Discussion

Based on the chorological system detailed by Jacquemin and Boudot (1999) (fig. 10), it seems clear that the odonatological fauna of the Moulouya watershed and eastern Morocco consists essentially of Palearctic elements including mostly Mediterranean species (72 % of the total species), followed by widely distributed taxa (28 %).

Fig. 10. Main chorological categories of the studied species. Fig. 10. Principales categorías corológicas de las especies estudiadas.

Among the Mediterranean elements, there is a predominance of species with a strictly West Mediterranean distribution (47 %), followed by endemic species in the broadest sense (37 %), while the Holomediterranean species are only a minority (16 %). The endemic species are mainly those with a Maghrebian chorotype distribution (21 %), followed by the Ibero-Maghrebian taxa (16 %). The clear dominance of the Palearctic elements, typically Mediterranean, and the high rate of Ibero-Maghrebian endemics in the Odonatological population of the study area, shows a strong similarity to the chorotypes found for other insect groups (Mabrouki et al, 2016a, 2017a, 2018b; Taybi et al., 2017b, 2018b) and emphasizes the rather low survival of the typical Afrotropical species following the aridification of the Sahara in the last 3,000–4,500 years. The latter are mostly Paragomphus genei, Orthetrum chrysostigma, Zygonyx torridus, Crocothemis erythraea, Trithemis annulata and T. kirbyi. Global warming presently affects the distribution range of Odonata in the Mediterranean, with some species being on the decline due to habitat alteration and, others, well adapted to warmer and dryer conditions, and increasingly recorded in southern Europe (Degabriele, 2013; Polette et al. 2017). The dominance of species with broad distributions points to the high dispersal ability of the Odonata community in East Morocco, similar to what is known in other parts of Morocco (Jacquemin and Boudot, 1999).

A resilient behaviour of the community, with frequent vagrant individuals searching for new habitats, enables species survival in a very changing environment where a semiarid climate prevails (Boudot and De Knijf, 2012). This behaviour pattern has also been observed for other groups, such as riparian carabids, aquatic beetles and bugs, stoneflies and mayflies (Daoudi et al., 2017;
Mabrouki et al., 2016a, 2018b; Taybi et al., 2017b, 2018b) emphasizing the dominant meta-community behaviour for most macroinvertebrates.

The results of this study and data from the literature show that the Moulouya watershed and eastern Morocco currently contain a total of 47 Odonata species, which corresponds to 74 % of the Moroccan Odonata fauna (El Haissoufi et al., 2015). This number of species is linked to a high variability and heterogeneity of aquatic habitat in the studied area, going from lotic or lentic soft waters to lotic or lentic brackish waters (Chavanon et al., 2004).

Most of the species found during this work showed a significant increase in localities in the region. The discovery for the first time in the East of Morocco of four new Odonata species:
Pseudagrion sublacteum, Aeshna mixta, Sympetrum sinaiticum and S. meridionale. While Paragomphus genei is a new species for the Basin of Moulouya River. We provide evidence of breeding of Zygonyx torridus in the Moulouya River and new sights of Boyeria irene after more than 30 years of apparent absence in the region. Lastly, some species typical of semi-arid and arid environments, like Selysiothemis nigra and Brachythemis impartita, appear to expand their settlements in the region together with several other species, which match their current status in other parts of the Mediterranean and Maghrebian regions. Conversely, some species previously reported from East Morocco could not be found again during the present study; this could be due either to their hidden behaviour or difficulty of identification in the field, or to true a decrease in response to more and more limited good quality water resources and increasing anthropic pressures. Obviously, like in most of the North African territory, the regional aquatic ecosystems are increasingly threatened through water abstraction, habitat loss and modification, industrial effluents, domestic sewage, invasive species and agricultural runoff including fertilizers, pesticides and drainage of water (Garcia et al., 2010; Bensaad et al., 2017; Mabrouki et al., 2016b, 2017b; Taybi et al., 2016b; Yahya et al., 2017). It is well known that this tends to reduce species richness of freshwater organisms in impacted areas throughout the Maghreb (Garcia et al., 2010; Mabrouki et al. 2016a; Taybi et al., 2017a, 2018a). In fact, among the species previously known in the region, eight have not been found again, namely Coenagrion puella, C. scitulum, Erythromma viridulum, Ischnura fountaineae, I. pumilio, Pyrrhosoma nymphula, the near threatened Coenagrion mercuriale and the endangered Calopteryx exul according to their IUCN status. It is hoped that findings from the present work will increase awareness of these insects and their habitats and the importance of their conservation.

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